Lassa Fever

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No less than 158 people have died since the outbreak of Lassa fever in Nigeria at the beginning of the year.

The deaths are from 4 396 cases of the fever spread by rodents.

Some 23 states, out of 36 in the West African country, are affected.

Those killed include two health workers, from a total of 19 that have been infected since the outbreak.

Predominant age group affected is 21-40 years.

The multi-sectoral Technical Working Group (TWG) continues to coordinate response activities at all levels in an effort to address the crisis.

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country of an estimated 2 million people, is prone to disease outbreaks.

Lassa fever is known to be endemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

Concurrent to Lassa fever, Nigeria is enduring an outbreak of cholera. Seven states are affected.

As of the end of October, 22people have died from the water borne disease.

A total of 1 583 suspected cases were confirmed.

The disease has mostly claimed the lives of children aged between one and four years old.

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The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has confirmed three new cases of Lassa fever in Ondo State, including a health worker with two new deaths.

Also, it said that a monkey pox case in Israel on October 13, 2018 has travel history from Nigeria.

According to the NCDC, in the reporting week 42, one new healthcare worker was infected in Ondo State and forty-one healthcare workers have been affected since the onset of the outbreak in seven states – Ebonyi (16), Edo (15), Ondo (five), Kogi (two), Nasarawa (one), Taraba (one) and Abia (one) with ten deaths in Ebonyi (five), Kogi (one), Abia (one), Ondo (two) and Edo (one).

The NCDC, which confirmed two new cases of monkey pox out of 10 new reported cases, noted that it is following up closely with the Ministry of Health in Israel following the report of a confirmed monkey pox case in the country on October 13, 2018 with a travel history from Nigeria.

Meanwhile, Lagos State Governor, Mr. Akinwunmi Ambode, will tomorrow join the Governor-General of Canada, Julie Payette, to inaugurate a new biosecurity laboratory in Lagos to curb any new Ebola outbreak in the state.

In a statement yesterday, the Lagos State Government said the laboratory would be located at the Mainland Hospital in Yaba where the isolation unit used by the state government to contain the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was located.

It said the laboratory, funded by Canada in partnership with the state government, would serve as a single repository for all high-concentration pathogens in the state, adding that it would also help to mitigate post-EVD threats and build capacity for prevention, detection and response to future outbreak.

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Scientists have moved closer to the first ever Lassa fever vaccine as the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has confirmed nine new cases of the virus and four deaths in Ebonyi, Edo and Ondo states.

The vaccine breakthrough was published in the journal, Nature Communications. Researchers at Philadelphia University and Thomas Jefferson University, United States (U.S.), tested the new two-component vaccine on mice and guinea pigs.Lead researcher, Dr. Matthias Schnell, said: “It showed good protection from exposure to both virus types in preliminary animal studies.”

The vaccine is expected to be safe for humans because it is based on one that has been used for decades to prevent rabies.Meanwhile, the latest update on Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria published yesterday by the NCDC, “In the reporting Week 40 (October 1-7, 2018), nine new confirmed cases were reported from Edo (five), Ondo (two) and Ebonyi (two) states with one new death in Edo and three deaths in probable cases from Ebonyi State.”

The NCDC said from January 1 to October 7, 2018, 2,648 suspected cases had been reported from 22 states and of these, 523 were confirmed positive, 15 probable, 2,109 negative (not a case).According to the Centre, since the onset of the 2018 outbreak, there have been 135 deaths in confirmed cases and 15 in probable cases and Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in confirmed cases is 25.8 per cent.

The latest figures from the NCDC showed 22 states have recorded at least one confirmed case across 89 local councils (Edo, Ondo, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Ebonyi, Anambra, Benue, Kogi, Imo, Plateau, Lagos, Taraba, Delta, Osun, Rivers, FCT, Gombe, Ekiti, Kaduna, Abia, Adamawa and Enugu) and 17 states have exited the active phase of the outbreak while five – Edo, Delta, Ondo, Bauchi and Ebonyi states – remain active.

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Adamawa Ministry of Health, yesterday, said one person died from an outbreak of Lassa fever in the state, while no fewer than 81 others had been quarantined.
Information Officer of the ministry, Mr. Abubakar Muhammed, disclosed this in Yola, the state capital.
According to him, 45 members of the deceased’s families and 36 others, including some health workers who had direct contact with the deceased, had been quarantined.
Muhammed explained that the state government, World Health Organisation, WHO, and other agencies had established an emergency centre in Yola.
According to him, the centre will also serve as control centre of the killer disease.
He said the deceased, Gadiel Ambe, 46, hailed from Numan Local Government Area.
Muhammed explained that Ambe, before his death, was a Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps officer working in Sardauna council of Taraba State, saying he might have contacted the disease there.

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Nigerians cannot afford to relax on the hygiene and sanitation practices they adopted during the Lassa fever outbreak. The advice comes handy, especially as a patient receiving treatment at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, died on Tuesday because of the viral disease.

In fact, experts recommend that we must not be caught off guard, as Nigeria is the worst hit of the four countries that are battling the disease. The other countries are Benin, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Togo.

According to the World Health Organisation, 138 out of 167 patients that died of Lassa fever are Nigerians. Statistics show that the number of causalities from the disease outbreak is higher than that of Ebola Virus Disease, which killed eight persons, including the senior doctor, Stella Adadevoh.

Doctors say we must not neglect the lessons that we learnt at the peak of the two viral outbreaks, if we want to avert more deaths.

Consultant Virologist, Dr. Olumide Abunbarin, explains that keeping an environment that is free of rodents, is one of the strategies that we must continue to adopt. According to him, the species of rodent, the Multimammate rat, which is the major harbinger of the disease, still roams freely in many homes in the country.

Abunbarin explains further that the presence of this animal host in our surrounding is the reason why many Nigerians are at the risk of contracting the virus.

He says, “The reservoir or host of the Lassa virus is a rodent known as the Multimammate rat of the genus Mastomys. Mastomys rodents are sometimes consumed as food. The infection may occur via a direct contact with it, its urine, faeces, blood or any food it has contaminated.”

Public health physician, Dr. Segun Adeboye, notes that another way in which one can contract the deadly virus in the home is through poor hygiene.

Adeboye explains that these rats scavenge on food remains that are not well-preserved and breed better in dirty environments, especially in refuse dumps.

He says, “Block holes and other avenues that could allow rats into your homes. If rats are coming in and out of your house at will, then you should know that you are at a higher risk of being infected.

“If you eat food items contaminated with urine and droppings from an infected rat, then you can be infected. Store all food items in sealed containers.”

Also, there is evidence of air-borne transmission of Lassa virus. Scientists state that individuals can contract the virus if they inhale air from an environment that is contaminated by rodent excretions.

Like Ebola, you can also contract the virus by touching the body fluids of an infected person. This is called person-to-person transmission.

But as infectious and deadly as Lassa fever is, it can be prevented if one can adopt some simple hygienic habits. One of them is washing your hands with soap.

Adeboye notes that the importance of washing one’s hands with soap and water to get rid of germs, bacteria and other viruses should be taken more seriously.

According to him, evidence abound that the habit reduces one’s risk of getting infections by 60 per cent.

Adeboye says, “Many people are aware of washing of hands, but what we are saying is that you should use soap or a disinfectant when you are washing those hands.

“That is what will kill the bacteria or virus. Also, the hand is the means by which most infections are contracted. And the average person touches his/her mouth at least 10 times a day.

“Science has proved that 70 per cent of infections are contracted via the mouth and the hands.”

If you do not like the idea of washing with water, you can try hand sanitisers. They are portable, which means, you can carry one in your bag, car or keep it in your office.

Adeboye recommends that companies with more than 50 employees should have hand sanitisers installed in major entry points in their offices.

“Hand sanitisers have been chemically designed with natural disinfectants. It is potent but not poisonous. It is user-friendly and absorbs quickly into the skin, unlike when you use water and you have to clean with cloth again, which may contaminate the hand you just washed,” Adeboye adds.

To prevent cross infection of Lassa fever in hospitals, the Lagos State Commissioner for Health, Dr. Jide Idris, stresses that health workers must be vigilant when attending to patients with symptoms of the virus.

Idris notes that a patient, who has a fever that will not go after several treatments and management, is a suspected case.

It simply means, if a fever persists after all medications and therapies have been applied, such individuals should visit the nearest health facility.

Also, experts advise that while some states are still battling with the disease, health workers should treat patients with symptoms of high fever with a high index of suspicion.


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The World Health Organisation has identified late diagnosis of Lassa fever patients as the reason for the high mortality rate of the disease in Nigeria.

In a statement on Monday, the health agency gave an official breakdown of the number of Lassa fever cases in Africa and called on governments and stakeholders in affected countries to commit more resources to early diagnosis of the viral disease.

It stated, “Lassa fever has killed more than 160 people in West Africa, most of them in Nigeria, since November 2015. Nigeria, Benin, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Togo have reported more than 300 cases of Lassa fever and 167 deaths.

“Nigeria accounts for the majority of the cases with 266 cases and 138 deaths reported in 22 of the country’s 34 provinces as at 21 March 2016. Benin has recorded 51 cases and 25 deaths. Many of these lives could have been saved if a rapid diagnostic test were available so that people could receive treatment early.”

An expert in haemorrhagic fevers at WHO, Dr. Pieere Formenty, stated that late diagnosis would lead to the death of 60 per cent of patients that have contracted the virus.

Formenty said, “Without early diagnosis and treatment, one in five infections result in severe disease, where the virus affects several organs such as the liver, spleen and kidneys.

“We need resources to invest in diagnostics to easily, accurately and safely test for Lassa fever as we do for malaria and HIV. Without a proper diagnosis, many people do not receive the correct treatment and that is why we see so many people with Lassa fever dying each year.”


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Cat owners are less likely to contract the Lassa fever virus from rats because cats can kill rats, thus reducing the spread of the disease from animals to man.

However, if the primary reason for purchasing a cat is based on the outbreak of the disease, you are making a right choice for the wrong reasons because pets should never be purchased on impulse.

Pets should be kept primarily for companionship and to share your love.

Cats are beautiful, intelligent and sensitive creatures. They are born hunters with superb hunting instincts that are not dulled even if they are domesticated.

Cats are very playful and can be the perfect buddies for children. But, ensure that you teach your children the act of responsible pet ownership and do not leave them unsupervised when they are playing with a cat.

An interesting study showed that children who live with pets during their first year of life have a lower risk of respiratory tract infection and need fewer antibiotics than children in non-pet homes. This is because pets track more dirt and bacteria into homes and this increased exposure to germs, help to develop a more stable immune system, particularly in children between the ages of five and eight years.

Also, children who own pets or share in pet care responsibilities are often less self-centered and more likely to develop humane attitudes, such as empathy and good nurturing abilities, than children who do not own pets. The reason is that pets help to stimulate better social integration and competence. For example, cleaning a dog’s kennel, grooming or feeding a pet are often multi-step processes that make them more adept at following multi-task instructions.

Individuals and families thinking of getting a cat should research, prepare and then, when the time is right, seek a cat that realistically complements your lifestyle, schedule and energy level.

Keeping a cat is like having a new person that lives in your home. So, you need to evaluate your level of commitment because cats can live up to 15 years. It is highly irresponsible to have a cat and not take good care of it.

I advise that you make a budget before you buy a cat. Your budget will include an estimate for the cost of food, veterinary bills, toys, grooming brushes, combs, and other accessories. Also, you will need to consider the cost of purchase or building a cat condo (an artificial structure for a cat to play, exercise and relax on).

Routine veterinary care is required to prevent cats from falling sick. You also need to realize that there are some diseases a sick cat can transmit to its owner.

For example, you need to be cautious of scratches from a sick cat, as this may result in a disease known as cat scratch fever or Teeny’s disease (Infectious disease caused by an inter-cellular bacterium known as Bartonella henselae). This infection shows clinical signs, such as swelling of lymph nodes, fever and fatigue in humans.

Another disease that can be transmitted by sick cats is known as Toxoplasmosis (Infectious disease caused a bacterium known as Toxoplasma gondii). This bacterium resides in the urine of infected birds and rats. The disease can be transmitted to cats whenever they kill such infected animals.

A cat that is infected with toxoplasmosis can transmit the bacterium to a human being and this is a major cause for concern if the individual becomes infected during the third trimester of pregnancy. It may result in severe foetal abnormalities or an abortion. This is why obstetricians advise pregnant women not to change cat litter boxes.

To prevent you or your cat from getting infected with toxoplasmosis, wash your hands after scooping the litter box and don’t let your cat outside to hunt.

These diseases are not found in healthy cats. So you must ensure that your veterinary doctor carries out a general check-up on your cat, at least once in four months. During this visit, he will update your pet’s medical records by administering any required prophylactic medication or vaccination.

A healthy cat has no disease. All it can spread is to you is “pure unconditional love.”

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Pest control providers and hawkers are laughing all the way to the bank following the recent outbreak of Lassa fever in the country, BUKOLA ADEBAYO writes

The outbreak of Lassa fever has opened new vistas of business opportunities for fumigators, hawkers and other pest control providers in the country. Indeed, calls by experts and government officials urging Nigerians to take precautionary measures to ensure that rats, the major host of the Lassa virus, do not enter their homes, are gaining momentum and acceptance.

For the Managing Director, PestOFF, Lekki, Lagos, Mr. Tunde Aderinto, it is a boom time for the pest control outfit as no less than 10 companies have, in the past three days, contracted the firm to fumigate their facilities and offices.

According to Aderinto, the news of the outbreak of the virus as well as the accompanying commentaries has resulted in increased business for his firm.

“Before, if we submitted 20 proposals to organisations seeking to fumigate their offices, maybe only one will respond. In fact, at a time in 2014, we offered fumigation services free just to sensitise the citizens.

“But in the last three days, more than 10 companies have sent their officials to us, requesting the fumigation of their offices and facilities. I have had to sublet some jobs to my other colleagues because I am running out of chemicals to meet people’s demands,” he told our correspondent on Tuesday.

Beyond the awareness, Aderinto noted that many pest control firms in the country were currently laughing all the way to the bank. For instance, he stated that the fumigation of a plot of land, which hitherto was N20,000, had increased to N30, 000 because of high demand and cost of the chemicals.

Aderinto is however not alone in reaping the “benefits” of the Lassa fever syndrome.

Another pest control expert, Mr. Olumide Lawal, confirmed to our correspondent that demand for fumigation services had tripled.

Lawal, whose business is based in Ikeja, Lagos, said he worked on weekends to meet the demands of some his clients.

He said, “I did not rest this week because we were fumigating some hotels and offices. Many of the firms needed the exercise done before work started on Monday and so this got us all engaged. The Lassa fever outbreak has raised Nigerians’ consciousness concerning the importance of a rodent-free environment.

“Sales go up during Lassa fever outbreak but this time, the demand has tripled. It has been a blessing for my company. But, I don’t think people should wait for another outbreak before they take pest control seriously. Communities should come together to keep their environment clean.

“If I fumigate my house and my neighbour’s house has rats, they will return and invade my house. The business of keeping an environment rodent-free demands communal efforts. We need to dispose your refuse quickly and neatly. We also need to block holes and keep our drainage channels covered.”

He also warned Nigerians to be wary of fake pest control practitioners, who might seek to exploit the increasing demand by offering sub-standard services.

Lawal said, “There is a concentration of chemicals we must use for the cleansing exercise to be effective. If we go lower than that quantity, it will not be effective. It is just like spraying some air freshener or deodorants around the home.

“Again, if we go beyond the specification, it will be poisonous to the residents, who may be exposed to some respiratory diseases.”

Aside from the perspective of experts, hawkers of pesticides, especially rat killers, are having a good time. A petty trader in the Abule-Oja area of Yaba, told our correspondent on Monday that he ordered more local rat traps due to increasing requests from his customers.

“I sell at least 50 pieces of rat poison each day since last week compared to 20 I sold the previous week. What I used to sell for N50 per sachet is now N100. Customers now request the big traps for rats and they are willing to pay double, especially when I create the impression that the products came from the village.

“Before now, it was the chemical rat poison that was in demand but now, you can recommend anything that kills rats and customers will buy it without hesitation. They will only ask if it works.”

Schools, hospitals and establishments are also rolling out environmental sanitation programmes to keep rats out of their environments.

So far, more than 40 persons have died of Lassa fever, a hemorrhagic viral disease since its recent outbreak in the country.

More than 500 Nigerians are currently under observation for the disease.


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Unknown to many Nigerians, the Lassa fever virus has so far claimed the lives of 41 people in the country. The death toll has exceeded the figure recorded during the outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease in the country two years ago.

One may wonder why there are so many causalities. The answer is simple: Lassa fever is a highly infectious disease and many people are not even aware of its mode of infection, transmission and how it can be prevented. It is so contagious that you can contract it in the comfort of your home.

To understand how to prevent more deaths from Lassa fever infection, experts say one must learn its history, symptoms and simple ways to avoid it.

According to them, a species of rodents, known as the Multi mammate rat, which breeds in Nigeria and can be found in many homes, especially in the kitchen, is the major harbinger of the disease.

A virologist, Dr. Olumide Abunbarin, says that the animal host are tenants in many communities in Nigeria. This explains why many Nigerians are at the risk of contracting the disease.

He says, “The reservoir, or host, of the Lassa virus is a rodent known as the Multimammate rat of the genus Mastomys. Mastomys rodents are sometimes used as a food source. The infection may occur via a direct contact with it, its urine, faeces, blood or consumption of contaminated food.”

Another public health physician, Dr. Segun Adeboye, notes that another way in which one can contract the deadly virus in the home is through poor hygiene.

Adeboye notes that these rats scavenge on left-over food and they breed better in a dirty environment, especially where there is a lot of refuse.

He says, “If rats are fond of coming into your house for their breakfast, lunch and dinner, then you should know you are at a higher risk of getting infected. They will live in your home and leave all the viruses they carry behind.

“If you eat food items contaminated with urine and droppings from an infected rat then you can be infected. The best thing is to store all food items in sealed containers.”

They say that there is no better time for Nigerians to take environmental sanitation and community management of refuse more seriously as these rats hide and breed better in dirty places and open refuse dumps.

They warn, “There is an air-borne transmission of Lassa virus. One can be exposed to the virus if one inhales tiny particles in the air contaminated with rodent excretions. That is why there is the need for a proper personal and household management of refuse to keep rodents away from our homes and environment.

“Indiscriminate dumping of refuse should be avoided as these are potential breeding grounds for rats. Clearing of bushes and refuse to reduce hiding and breeding spaces for rats is also important.”

Like Ebola, you can also contract the virus by touching the body fluids of an infected person. It is called person-to-person transmission.

But, as infectious and deadly as it is, Lassa fever infection can be prevented if one observes simple rules of hygiene to reduce the risk of contracting the disease directly from the host or through the secondary form of infection or person-to-person transmission.

One of them is hand washing with soap. Adeboye notes that the importance of washing one’s hands with soap and water to get rid of germs, bacteria and other viruses cannot be overemphasised during the period. According to him, this age long habit has been proven to reduce the risk of infection by more than 60 per cent.

Adeboye says, “ Many people are aware of the need to wash their hands, but what we are saying is that you should use soap or a disinfectant when you are washing those hands. That is what will kill the bacteria or virus. The hand is the means by which most infections are contracted. And the average person touches his/her mouth at least 10 times a day.

“If you touch an infected person with your hand unknowingly and you don’t wash your hand before eating, you have introduced a virus into your body just by being negligent. Science has proved that 70 per cent of infections are contracted via the mouth through the hands.”

Access to portable water is still a challenge in most cities in Nigeria. However, you can always improvise with hand sanitisers. They are portable, which means you can carry one in your bag, car and in your office.

Adeboye notes that organisations with a staff strength of more than 50 should have hand sanitisers installed in major entry points in their offices.

“People should promote the use of hand sanitisers, which have been chemically designed with natural disinfectants. Sanitisers are potent but not poisonous. They are also user-friendly and easily absorbed into the skin, unlike when you use water and you have to clean up with a piece of cloth again, which may now contaminate the hand you just washed. We must encourage more people to key into hygiene. Insist that the restaurants where you eat have it. Install it in your homes.”Adeboye adds.

Also, any hospital that has the safety of its patients and health workers at heart would have installed sanitisers in each of their wards and facilities, including toilets, by now.

Experts note that the hospital environment remains the easiest place to contract infections and health workers must ensure that they do not become the carrier of the virus, thereby endangering their lives and that of other patients.

They insist that hospital owners must sensitise their workforce on the importance of decontamination as a means of infection control.

Adeboye says,“The standard practice is that a doctor or nurse must wash his/her hands or use sanitisers before examining a patient and after examining the patient. There is no room for compromise now. We should not be seen as people that are careless again. These are times for drastic measures especially if you live in any of the states where some cases have been confirmed.”

However, beyond Lassa fever, hand-washing with soap has been proved to prevent one from contracting diarrhoea and pneumonia infections, which kill more than 100,000 children annually in Africa.

Use this period of the outbreak to look at ways you can make your home cleaner and safer for you, your family and your community.


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Lassa fever was first discovered in 1969 after two nurses died of a strange illness in the town of Lassa, Borno State, Nigeria. The condition is characterised by an acute viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a microorganism called “Lassa virus”.

The virus is shed in the urine and feaces of Mastomys natalensis (A rat that causes Lassa fever). A ‘Lassa fever causing rat’ can easily be identified because they have a total of 24 ‘nipples’ instead of 12 (normal number of nipples in rats).

The key to controlling this virus that causes 5,000 deaths annually is by elimination of rats and proper sanitisation of the environment. The incubation period (Time it takes for the disease to develop) is about 21 days.

In 80 per cent of cases, Lassa fever is asymptomatic (A carrier of the disease fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which the disease is usually associated). Nonspecific symptoms include fever, facial swelling, and muscle fatigue, as well as conjunctivitis and mucosal bleeding. Early symptom can be similar to malaria.

Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease (a disease that can be passed between animals and humans.) Transmission from human to human has been established, presenting a disease risk for healthcare workers.

Humans can get infected by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated with feaces or urine that contains the virus. In addition, the Lassa fever virus can get into the body if contaminated substance is inhaled or touches broken skin or mucous membranes (a biological membrane that lines various cavities in the body and surrounds internal organs). Mucous membranes can be found in our eyes, nose and mouth.

Like earlier reiterated, elimination of rats is key to controlling Lassa fever virus. However, please exercise caution and do not use toxic chemicals in rat control. Keep babies, toddlers and pets away when applying rat poisons and be careful to avoid food and water sources because rat poisons can harm the rat and pets or human beings that come in contact with the poison or poisoned rat. For example, a rat that consumes poison becomes weak and slow. As such, it is an easy catch for a cat. If a cat consumes such a rat, the cat will get poisoned.

I recall responding to a distress call in which a client’s dog was in comma. On getting to the house, I found the dog had vomited before passing out. Further observation of the vomitus revealed four dark objects. A closer look at these objects revealed partially digested rats. Apparently, the client had previously placed highly toxic rat bait in the environment and the dog had consumed the poisoned rats.

A safe way to eliminate rats is by adding some bait (food) to a human drug known as Indomethacin (popularly known as In-do-cid).

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a human prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. However, in rats and mice, Indomethacin has gastroulcerogenic effects (It destroys the inner lining of the stomach of rats and this result in death of the rat or mice.

Beyond eliminating rats, it is also important that you ensure your house is not condusive for rats. This can be achieved by clearing the environment and getting rid of wood piles, tyres, bowls, buckets, and other objects that they can hide in.

In addition, pick up and dispose old newspapers, magazines, cardboards, and other objects that can be food them.

Store provision in sealed plastic containers and place ripe fruits, rice and long-term storage items in the refrigerator. Wash dishes daily or, at least, submerge in soapy water until you can get to them. Dispose garbage in air-tight plastic containers that are inaccessible to rats.

Keep bathroom and kitchen areas as dry as possible. Fix leaky faucets and don’t let standing water accumulate. This is necessary because many insects and rats are attracted to moist areas.

Clean counter tops and tables regularly with disinfectant containing antiviral agents. A good and readily homemade anti-viral solution is “bleach” because it contains sodium hypochlorite (an anti-viral agent). Sodium hypochlorite would help to disinfect surfaces and also destroy the Lassa fever virus.

Also at this time, ensure you wash your hands frequently and thoroughly because hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of many types of infection.

Wash your hands before, during, and after preparing food. Wash your hands before and after caring for someone who is sick, after using the toilet, after changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet, after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.

Wash your hands before and after treating a cut or open wound, after touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste. Don’t forget to wash your hands after touching garbage. Clean hands saves lives.

In conclusion, the Minister of Health, Prof. Isaac Adewole, in a statement issued in Abuja in response to the outbreak of disease in the country has advised that healthcare workers attending a patient suspected to have Lassa fever should immediately contact the State Epidemiologist in the state ministry of health or call the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control and Federal Ministry of Health using the following numbers: 08093810105, 08163215251, 08031571667and 08135050005.