Prostate Cancer

Cancer
Cancer

Nigeria has the worst cancer mortality rate in Africa as four out of every five patients die from the ailment, according to recent statistics.

A foremost consultant oncologist and radiotherapist at the University of Nigeria College of Medicine (UNCM) and Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Prof. Ifeoma Okoye, who gave the statistics, blamed the high death rate on the low level of awareness, late presentation at hospitals as well as the high cost of screening and treatment.

Okoye, who is also a member of the team of medical experts that packaged the National Cancer Control Plan 2018-2022, said the global cancer community was rallying countries to produce plans that would address their cultural and country-specific challenges.

She said: “You need to address cultural challenges. For instance, we have to begin to investigate cases, prevent, where possible, ensure early detections, which is key, and provide optimal management, palliative care and screening to the entire country.

We can do a national screening for 180 million people.

“Then there is the need to vaccinate the people against cancers. There is Hepatitis B vaccine that protects against liver cancer. There is also the vaccine that has to do with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that prevents cervical cancer.”

To address the situation, the radiologist recommended awareness creation and incorporation of cancer screening and treatment in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) so that people do not have to pay out of pocket.

She also called for uniform protocol across the country for caring, management, treatment, drug therapy and radiotherapy.

Dr. Omotayo Fatokun, in a study titled, “Cancer control reform in Nigeria” published in The Lancet Oncology noted: “In October 2016, the Nigerian government announced plans to establish a national agency for cancer control responsible for research, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care, as well as the provision of leadership and technical direction for the control of the disease in Nigeria.

The new agency will replace the national cancer control programme of the Federal Ministry of Health.

“The proposed reform is seen as a step in the right direction as the existing cancer control programme is ill equipped and under-resourced to cope with the challenges surrounding the cancer burden in the country.”

According to the Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy (CECP- Nigeria), 30 Nigerian women die every day of breast cancer (a cancer that can be cured if detected early); one Nigerian woman dies every hour of cervical cancer (a cancer that is virtually 100 per cent preventable); 14 Nigerian men die daily of prostate cancer (another cancer that can be cured if detected early); one Nigerian dies every hour of liver cancer (a cancer that is preventable through vaccination); and one Nigerian dies every two hours of colon cancer (another cancer that is virtually 100 per cent preventable).

The National Coordinator of CECP, Dr. Abia Nzelu, also declared that out of every five Nigerians with cancer, only one survives.

“ln the specific case of blood cancer, out of every 30 Nigerians (often young adults and children), only one survives, whereas at the Tata Cancer Centre in India, the survival rate for blood cancer is 99 per cent.

The future generation of Nigeria is wasting away from conditions that can be controlled medically. Alas, Nigeria is a nation where wealth accumulates and men decay.”

She stated that 10 Nigerians died of cancer every hour, yet, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), one-third of cancers is preventable, another one-third is curable and the last third can have good quality of life with appropriate care.

On why the situation is different in Nigeria, and Nigerians who still seek treatment abroad end up dying from preventable cancers, Nzelu said: “The truth is that we do not have adequate infrastructure and system for early diagnosis, so cases end up being detected at a time when they are beyond help.

Many other countries have invested a lot of funds in cancer research, screening programmes and treatment. In such countries, every sector of the society is involved in the fight against cancer.”

Meanwhile, as part of efforts to reduce cancer death and burden, the Minister of Health, Isaac Adewole, has called on the private sectors, state governments and individuals to assist the Federal Government in mobilising over N93 billion to tackle the disease across the country.

The minister who made the appeal at the launch and dissemination of the National Cancer Control Plan 2018-2022 in Abuja, said the Federal Government alone could not raise the N93 billion.

Adewole said the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) was working assiduously to improve the capacity of health workers to manage cancer patients.

“The essence of this event today is to tell Nigerians that we are aware of the cancer burden in the country and we have planned ahead, but it remains the diligent implementation of the plan because it is quite elaborate.

“In 2017 budget, we have nine billion, we have six billion in 2018 budget which makes it N15 billion but we cannot do it alone. We are appealing to the private sectors, individual firms and state governments to partner us so that we can raise the money,” he said.

According to him, the government is working to provide 18 LINAC machines by 2019, and the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) has promised to provide comprehensive cancer centres in Uyo, Akwa Ibom and Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

holding-pee
holding-pee
Many people wonder how often they should pee. While no set number is considered normal, people on average urinate six or seven times a day.

Several factors can influence how often an individual pees throughout the day. Medications, supplements, foods, and beverages can all play a role, as can certain medical conditions. Age and bladder size also matter.

The medical community uses the term urinary frequency to describe how often a person pees.

In this article, we discuss healthy and unhealthy frequencies, and how to manage associated symptoms.

Healthy urinary frequency 

Urinary frequency depends on the following factors:

  • age
  • bladder size
  • fluid intake
  • the presence of medical conditions, such as diabetes and UTIs.
  • the types of fluids consumed, as alcohol and caffeine can increase the production of urine
  • the use of medications, such as those for blood pressure, and supplements

On average, a person who drinks 64 ounces of fluid in 24 hours will pee approximately seven times during that period.

Urination during pregnancy

The hormonal changes and pressure on the bladder involved in pregnancy can also increase urinary output. This high urinary frequency may continue for up to 8 weeks after giving birth.

Symptoms of peeing too often or not enough

Peeing too rarely or frequently may indicate an underlying condition, especially when accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • back pain
  • blood in the urine
  • cloudy or discolored urine
  • difficulty passing urine
  • fever
  • leaking between toilet visits
  • pain when urinating
  • strong-smelling urine

Treatment can resolve symptoms and prevent complications, so it is important to see a doctor.

Anyone who notices a dramatic change in urinary frequency or output, even if it still falls within the normal range, should seek medical advice.

What factors affect urinary frequency?

However, dramatic changes in urinary frequency can indicate a serious underlying condition.

The Cleveland Clinic has reported that 80 percent of bladder problems are caused by factors beyond the bladder.

Underlying medical conditions

The following conditions may be responsible for changes in urinary frequency:

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI): This can cause frequent urination, urinary urgency, a burning sensation or pain while peeing, and back pain. UTIs are very common, especially among women. Antibiotic treatment is usually necessary.
  • Overactive bladder: This describes frequent urination and is linked to several issues, including infections, obesity, hormonal imbalances, and nerve damage. Most cases are easily treatable.
  • Interstitial cystitis: This long-term condition is also known as painful bladder syndrome. Though no infection is involved, it causes symptoms similar to a UTI. The exact cause is unknown, but it is often linked to bladder inflammation.
  • Diabetes: Undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes may lead to high blood sugar levels, which can cause frequent urination.
  • Hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia: High calcium levels (hypercalcemia) or low calcium levels (hypocalcemia) affect kidney function and may impact urinary output.
  • Sickle cell anemia: This inherited form of anemia, or low red blood cell count, can affect the kidneys and the concentration of urine. This causes some people to pee more often.
  • Prostate problems: An enlarged prostate causes a person to urinate less. They may also experience difficulty as the prostate gets larger and blocks the flow of urine.
  • Pelvic floor weakness: As the pelvic muscles lose strength, a person may pee more frequently. This is often the result of giving birth.

Medications

Drugs called diuretics will cause most people to pee more often. Diuretics take fluid out of the bloodstream and send it to the kidneys.

These medications are often prescribed for people with high blood pressure, kidney problems, or heart conditions.

Examples of diuretics include:

  • bumetanide (Bumex)
  • chlorothiazide (Diuril)
  • furosemide (Lasix)
  • metolazone (Zytanix)
  • spironolactone (Aldactone)

Fluids

Consuming a lot of fluid can increase urinary output, while not consuming enough can cause dehydration and diminished output.

Alcohol and caffeine have diuretic effects and increase urinary frequency. A person with no underlying condition may pee more frequently during or shortly after drinking alcoholic or caffeinated beverages.

Caffeine can be found in:

  • coffee
  • colas
  • energy drinks
  • hot chocolate
  • tea

Advancing age

Many people urinate more frequently, especially at night, as they get older.

Most people over the age of 60 do not urinate more than twice nightly, however. If a person wakes up to pee more than twice, they should consult a doctor.

Treatment

Frequent urination does not require treatment if there is no underlying condition and the frequency is not affecting happiness or quality of life.

Pregnant women also do not require treatment, as the symptom should disappear a few weeks after giving birth.

Any treatment required will depend on the cause. If a condition such as diabetes or a UTI is responsible for frequent urination, treatment will resolve this symptom. It can also increase urinary flow and reduce the size of the prostate.

If treatment is causing a person to pee too often, a doctor can adjust the dosage or prescribe a different medication.

It may be helpful to record fluid intake, urinary frequency, urgency, and other symptoms for 3 or more days before an appointment. This can help a doctor when they are diagnosing and determining the best treatment.

Tips for managing urinary frequency

  • Limit the amount of soda, caffeine, and alcohol consumed, or avoid them completely.
  • Drink 8 glasses of water daily.
  • Pee before and after sexual intercourse, and wipe from front to back after using the bathroom.
  • Try probiotic supplements or probiotic-rich foods, including yoghurt, kefir, and kimchi. Probiotics can support genital and urinary health.
  • Avoid using fragranced products around the genital area.
  • Wear loose cotton underwear and loose clothing to prevent infection and irritation.
  • Practice Kegel exercises to strengthen weak pelvic floor muscles.
  • Maintain a healthy weight to avoid placing added pressure on the pelvic muscles and bladder.

Some people also find it helpful to stick to a bathroom schedule. This involves going to the bathroom at scheduled times and gradually increasing the time between visits until there is a regular 3-hour gap.

Takeaway

The outlook for peeing too often or not often enough depends on the underlying cause. Most causes of frequent urination can be treated with medications and lifestyle changes.

Anyone concerned about their urinary output should see a doctor as soon as possible, to reduce the risk of complications. Seeking treatment at an early stage may also improve the outlook.

Healthy food means to eat clean and organic while keeping you away from the chemical and sugar rich foods. However, without even realizing their presence, our diet includes a major portion of artificial food content and high calories that claims to be significantly low. Such foods forms acids in the body and they are required to be eliminated as soon as possible. The foods creating inflammation disturb the hormonal balance in the body, congest the liver, and higher the blood sugar levels, as result, it nullify the efforts of restoring the good health.

Foods You Should Avoid While Losing Weight:-

Low Fat Ice Creams

Even when your ice creams are low on calories and loaded with the fruits, there are still lots of sugar content and harmful trans fat hidden inside the cup that makes you gain weight. Moreover, the artificial colours and flavours are nothing to do with your than worsening the situations. Instead, make your own ice cream at home with the natural fruit flavours less of harsh chemicals.

Thin Crust Veggies Loaded Pizza

People used to think that not all pizzas are bad for your health, however, even the thin crust slices are loaded with cheese that contains saturated fats and processed so heavily to make you gain those extra pounds easily. Go for homemade whole wheat crust, healthy sauce, superfoods pizza along with the right cheeses.

Zero Calories Drinks

All that fizz drinks claiming zero calories in the cans are the way to distract you from eating healthy. It is extremely acidic, hence; it takes more than 30 cups of water to neutralize the acidity of a single can. Such residues are hard on the body and make an evil impact on your kidneys.

French Fries

The trans fat and acrylamide present in the food cause inflammation in your body. It is also a greater cause of many other serious problems in the body including heart diseases, weight gain, cancer, etc. Try out finding how to cook them to maximize the nutrients and eliminate the formation of acrylamide.

Potato Chips

When the white potatoes are deeply fried it produces the highest level of toxic acrylamide which is the main reason of accumulation of the fat. As they are loaded with the healthy herbs, it doesn’t mean it will save some calories for you. Instead, try indulging in the crispy sweet potato chips and you will not miss the original chips for sure.

To be healthy, one must eat a wide variety of vitamin-rich foods. But with the growing number of people consuming fast food today, most would probably prefer it over homemade food which is a much better healthier choice. This daily consumption of fast food and junk food is so bad that it is putting the health of many people at risk. In order to prevent serious health problems and maintain a healthy lifestyle, you should consume foods that are rich in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

Eating a variety of antioxidant vitamins and mineral enriched foods can contribute to improving your quality of health for many years to come.

Now, here is a list of some superfoods that can help you achieve better health:

1. Berries
All kinds of berries are rich in fiber that can help promote weight loss. Raspberries contain ellagic acid which has a compound that prevents cancer.

2. Avocado
Avocados provide Vitamins A, B, C, E and K that are several important antioxidants along with glutathione.

3. Beans
It is a source of iron that transports oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in your body.

4. Bananas
It is a highly alkalining nutritious superfood that contains the best sources of potassium which help in maintaining heart function and normal blood pressure.

5. Salmon
Superfoods are not only categorized as fruits and vegetables. This kind of fish contains Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. It is anti-inflammatory and can alleviate joint pain and reduce the risk of heart disease.

6. Broccoli
Broccoli is one of the healthiest leafy green vegetables which is rich in vitamins A, C and folic acid. It also has sulforaphane that is considered a cancer-fighting agent.

7. Sweet potatoes
Sweet potatoes are high in alpha and beta carotenoids which are converted into an active usable form of Vitamin A by your body. These compounds can help keep your eyes, bones, and immune system healthy.

8. Cacao (Should be more than 60% Dark Chocolate) 
Cacao is high in essential minerals that most people do not get in their diet. It has magnesium which is used in more than 275 biochemical reactions in the body. Cacao also contains manganese, zinc and iron.

Try to consume at least three to four servings daily of a variety of superfoods (even more is better) for optimal health.

Achieving better health is not only about the foods you consume. You must also include proper exercise that can help you become physically fit.