In laboratory experiments, a chemical compound found in the shell of the cashew nut promotes the repair of myelin, a team from Vanderbilt University Medical Center reports Tuesday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Myelin is a protective sheath surrounding nerves. Damage to this covering — demyelination — is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis and related diseases of the central nervous system.
“We see this as an exciting finding, suggesting a new avenue in the search for therapies to correct the ravages of MS and other demyelinating diseases,” said Dr. Subramaniam Sriram, paper’s senior author, William C. Weaver III Professor of Neurology and chief of the Division of Neuroimmunology.
Previous work led by Sriram showed that a protein called interleukin 33, or IL-33, induced myelin formation. IL-33 is, among other things, an immune response regulator, and multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder.
The cashew shell compound is called anacardic acid. Sriram and team grew interested in it because it is known to inhibit an enzyme involved in gene expression called histone acetyltransferase, or HAT, and the team had discovered that whatever inhibits HAT induces production of IL-33.
The report includes a range of new findings that point to the potential therapeutic use of anacardic acid for demyelinating diseases: *In vitro, the addition of the compound to rat cells most responsible for myelination — oligodendrocyte precursor cells, or OPCs — spurred induction of IL-33 and rapidly increased the expression of myelin genes and proteins, including dose-dependent increases in myelin basic protein;
*In two animal models of demyelination, treatment with the compound increased the relative presence of IL-33-expressing OPCs and led to reduced paralysis;
*In an animal model of demyelination treated with the compound, dissection and electron microscopy showed dose-dependent increases in myelination.
“These are striking results that clearly urge further study of anarcardic acid for demyelinating diseases,” Sriram said.
When children indulge in sugary foods, they turn feral and bounce off every available surface. This is, as most parents can attest, a fact. In this Special Feature, we ask whether this common knowledge holds up to scientific scrutiny.
You are at a party, and there are around 20 children, aged 3–6. The noise is deafening and the candy bowls are empty. Screams of joy fill the air as parents marvel at their offspring’s sugar-induced bedlam.
But what does the science say? Does sugar increase the risk of hyperactivity in children? Perhaps surprisingly, the data says “probably not.”
This will come as a surprise to anyone who has attended a gathering of children where sweet treats are available, so let’s dive into the evidence, or lack thereof.
Sugar and hyperactivity in children
The question of whether sugar influences children’s behavior started to generate interest in the 1990s, and a flurry of studies ensued. In 1995, JAMA published a meta-analysis that combed through the findings of 23 experiments across 16 scientific papers.
The authors only included studies that had used a placebo and were blinded, which means that the children, parents, and teachers involved did not know who had received the sugar and who had been given the placebo.
After analyzing the data, the authors concluded: “This meta-analysis of the reported studies to date found that sugar (mainly sucrose) does not affect the behavior or cognitive performance of children.”
However, the authors note that they cannot eliminate the possibility of a “small effect.” As ever, they explain that more studies on a large scale are needed.
There is also the possibility that a certain subsection of children might respond differently to sugar. Overall, though, the scientists demonstrate that there certainly isn’t an effect as large as many parents report.
Are some children more sensitive to sugar?
Some parents believe that their child is particularly sensitive to sugar. To test whether this might be the case, one group of researchers compared two groups of children:
25 “normal” children aged 3–5
23 children, aged 6–10, whose parents described them as being sensitive to sugar
Each family followed three experimental diets in turn and each for 3 weeks. The diets were:
high in sucrose, with no artificial sweeteners
low in sucrose, but with aspartame as a sweetener
low in sucrose, but with saccharin — a placebo — as a sweetener
The study included aspartame, as the authors explain, because it, too, has been “considered a possible cause of hyperactivity and other behavior problems in children.”
All three diets were free from artificial food colorings, additives, and preservatives. Each week, the scientists assessed the children’s behavior and cognitive performance. After analysis, the authors concluded:
“For the children described as sugar-sensitive, there were no significant differences among the three diets in any of 39 behavioral and cognitive variables. For the preschool children, only 4 of the 31 measures differed significantly among the three diets, and there was no consistent pattern in the differences that were observed.”
The scientists collected information from food frequency questionnaires and demographic, sleep, and behavior questionnaires. A surprising 81% of the children consumed more than the recommended daily sugar intake.
Still, the researchers concluded that “Total sugar consumption was not related to behavioral or sleep problems, nor affected the relationship between these variables.”
Taking the findings together, it seems clear that if sugar does impact hyperactivity, the effect is not huge and does not extend to the majority of children.
Why does the idea persist?
At this point, some readers might be asking, “If there is no scientific evidence that sugar induces hyperactivity in children, why does it induce hyperactivity in my children?” Some of the blame, it is sad to say, may fall on parental expectations.
A study that underlines this point appeared in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology in 1994. The researchers recruited 35 boys aged 5–7 whose mothers described them as being behaviorally “sugar sensitive.”
The children were split into two groups. They all received a placebo, which was aspartame. Half of the mothers were told that their children had each received a placebo, and the others were told that theirs had each received a large dose of sugar.
The scientists filmed the mothers and sons as they interacted and were asked questions about the interaction. The authors explain what they saw:
“Mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive. Behavioral observations revealed these mothers exercised more control by maintaining physical closeness, as well as showing trends to criticize, look at, and talk to their sons more than did control mothers.”
Also, the media plays a part in perpetuating the myth. From cartoons to movies, the term “sugar rush” has entered common parlance.
Another factor is the setting in which a child might be given excess sugar. The classic scenario is a room full of children at a birthday party. In this environment, they are having fun and are likely to be excitable, regardless of the candy consumed.
Similarly, if candy is a special treat, the simple fact of receiving a delicious reward might be enough to generate a boisterous outburst of high-octane activity.
Where did this idea begin?
The health effects of sugar have been discussed widely over the last century. Even today, much research is dedicated to understanding the full details of this sweet chemical’s power over human health.
In 1947, Dr. Theron G. Randolph published a paper discussing the role of food allergies in fatigue, irritability, and behavioral problems in children. Among other factors, he described sensitivity to corn sugars, or corn syrup, as the cause of “tension-fatigue syndrome” in children, symptoms of which include tiredness and irritability.
In the 1970s, sugar was blamed for reactive or functional hypoglycemia — in other words, a dip in blood sugar following a meal — which can cause symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, and irritability.
These were the two prominent theories that underpinned the belief that children’s behavior is negatively impacted by consuming sugar: It is either an allergic reaction or a response to hypoglycemia. However, neither theory is now backed by the data.
Another lay explanation is that sugary snacks cause a brief spike in blood glucose, an effect called hyperglycemia. However, the symptoms of hyperglycemia include thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, irritability, and nausea. They do not include hyperactivity.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a fresh surge of interest in the sugar–hyperactivity theory. A number of studies appeared to show that children who were the most hyperactive consumed more sugar.
However, these studies were cross-sectional, meaning that they studied one population of children at one point in time. As the authors of the meta-analysis cited above explain, from these findings, it is impossible to know whether sugar causes hyperactivity or whether hyperactivity drives increased sugar intake.
Since the 1990s, studies looking at hyperactivity and sugar have trailed off, with most experts considering the case closed. In one domain, however, studies have continued.
For the vast majority of children, sugar will not cause hyperactivity, but the jury is still out for one group of youngsters: those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Scientists have approached this topic from two angles; some studies ask whether a high-sugar diet could increase the risk of developing ADHD, while others investigate whether sugar could exacerbate symptoms of ADHD in kids with the condition.
From the first camp of research, a study published in 2011 followed 107 fifth-graders and found “no significant association […] between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development.”
Looking for longer-term effects, a systematic review and meta-analysis published in the Journal of Affective Disorders in 2019 assessed “evidence of the association between dietary patterns and ADHD.” The authors concluded that “a diet high in refined sugar and saturated fat can increase the risk” of ADHD and that a diet heavy in fruit and vegetables is protective.
However, they acknowledge that the evidence was generally weak. For instance, of the 14 studies that found a relationship between diet and ADHD, 10 used a cross-sectional or case-control design, both of which are observational and can have methodological problems.
Cross-sectional studies cannot tease apart which came first, the cause or the effect, because they determine the prevalence of both at the same point in time.
Case-control studies provide stronger evidence, as they look back into potential causes, or risk factors, after working out who has the health issue in question. The researchers then explore the occurrence of the risk factors in a similar group of people who do not have the health problem.
However, information about potential causes can be affected by memory bias — for example, people with ADHD may be more likely to report that they had a sugary diet because the association is expected.
The authors of the meta-analysis make another important point; there is some evidence that people with ADHD are more likely to binge eat than people without it. This might mean that increased consumption of foods that activate reward networks in the brain, such as sugary snacks, might be the result of ADHD, rather than a factor that increases the risk of ADHD.
An important final word
Sugar, it seems, does not cause hyperactivity in the vast majority of children. In the future, larger, longer studies might detect a small effect, but current evidence suggests that the association is a myth.
This, however, does not discount the fact that a diet high in sugar increases the risk of diabetes, weight gain, tooth cavities, and heart disease. Monitoring children’s, and our own, sugar intake is still important for maintaining good health.
In the short-term, eating too much sugar may contribute to acne, weight gain, and tiredness. In the long-term, too much sugar increases the risk of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
However, the guidelines advise that people limit added sugars to less than 10% of their daily calorie intake. For a daily intake of 2,000 calories, added sugar should account for fewer than 200 calories.
However, in 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised that people eat half this amount, with no more than 5% of their daily calories coming from added sugar. For a diet of 2,000 calories per day, this would amount to 100 calories, or 6 tsp, at the most.
Symptoms of eating too much sugar
Some people experience the following symptoms after consuming sugar:
Low energy levels: A 2019 study found that 1 hour after sugar consumption, participants felt tired and less alert than a control group.
Low mood: A 2017 prospective study found that higher sugar intake increased rates of depression and mood disorder in males.
Bloating: According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, certain types of sugar may cause bloating and gas in people who have digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
Risks of eating too much sugar
Consuming too much sugar can also contribute to long-term health problems.
Sugar feeds bacteria that live in the mouth. When bacteria digest the sugar, they create acid as a waste product. This acid can erode tooth enamel, leading to holes or cavities in the teeth.
People who frequently eat sugary foods, particularly in between mealtimes as snacks or in sweetened drinks, are more likely to develop tooth decay, according to Action on Sugar, part of the Wolfson Institute in Preventive Medicine in the United Kingdom.
A 2018 study of university students in China showed that those who drank sweetened drinks seven times per week or more were more likely to develop moderate or severe acne.
Additionally, a 2019 study suggests that lowering sugar consumption may decrease insulin-like growth factors, androgens, and sebum, all of which may contribute to acne.
Weight gain and obesity
Sugar can affect the hormones in the body that control a person’s weight. The hormone leptin tells the brain a person has had enough to eat. However, according to a 2008 animal study, a diet high in sugar may cause leptin resistance.
This may mean, that over time, a high sugar diet prevents the brain from knowing when a person has eaten enough. However, researchers have yet to test this in humans.
A large prospective study in 2014 found that people who got 17–21% of their daily calories from added sugar had a 38% higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who consumed 8% added sugars. For those who consumed 21% or more of their energy from added sugars, their risk for CVD doubled.
High blood pressure
In a 2011 study, researchers found a link between sugar-sweetened beverages and high blood pressure, or hypertension. A review in Pharmacological Research states that hypertension is a risk factor for CVD. This may mean that sugar exacerbates both conditions.
A review of studies in the Annual Review of Nutrition found a 23–200% increased cancer risk with sugary drink consumption. Another study found a 59% increased risk of some cancers in people who consumed sugary drinks and carried weight around their abdomen.
Excess sugar in the diet leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which play a role in diabetes. However, they also affect collagen formation in the skin.
According to Skin Therapy Letter, there is some evidence to suggest that a high number of AGEs may lead to faster visible aging. However, scientists need to study this in humans more thoroughly to understand the impact of sugar in the aging process.
How to eat less sugar
A person can reduce the amount of added sugar they eat by:
checking food labels for sweeteners
reducing foods with added sugar
avoiding processed foods in general
Checking food labels
Added sugar and sweeteners come in many forms. Ingredients to look out for on a food label include:
high fructose corn syrup
evaporated cane juice
fruit juice concentrates
Some of these ingredients are natural sources of sugar and are not harmful in small amounts. However, when manufacturers add them to food products, a person might easily consume too much sugar without realizing it.
Reducing foods that contain added sugar
Some food products contain large amounts of added sugars. Reducing or removing these foods is an efficient way to reduce the amount of sugar a person eats.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010–2015 state that soda and other soft drinks account for around half a person’s added sugar intake in the U.S. The average can of soda or fruit punch provides 10 tsp of sugar.
Another common source of sugar is breakfast cereal. According to EWG, many popular cereals contain over 60% sugar by weight, with some store brands containing over 80% sugar. This is especially true of cereals marketed towards children.
Swapping these foods for unsweetened alternatives will help a person lower their sugar intake, for example:
swapping soda for water, milk, or herbal teas
swapping sugary cereals for low sugar cereal, oatmeal, or eggs
Avoiding processed foods
Manufacturers often add sugars to foods to make them more appealing. Often, this means people do not realize how much sugar a food contains.
By avoiding processed foods, a person can get a better sense of what their food contains. Cooking whole foods at home also means someone can control what ingredients they put into their meals.
When to see a doctor
People should see their doctor if they experience the symptoms of high blood sugar. According to the NIDDK, symptoms include:
increased thirst and urination
numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
unexplained weight loss
sores that do not heal
These symptoms may indicate a person has diabetes. A doctor can test for diabetes by taking a urine sample.
People should also speak to a doctor if they experience other symptoms after eating sugar, such as bloating.
Consuming too much added sugar has many adverse impacts on health, including tiredness and weight gain, and more severe conditions, such as heart disease. Added sugars are present in many processed foods and drinks.
People can reduce their sugar intake by knowing what to look for on food labels, avoiding or reducing common sources of sugar, such as soda and cereals, and prioritizing unprocessed whole foods.
If a person is concerned about weight gain, symptoms that may indicate diabetes, or other symptoms they experience after eating sugar, they should speak to a doctor.
Dental implants are artificial structures that a dental surgeon inserts into a person’s jawbone. A person may need an implant if they have lost one or more teeth.
Keep reading to learn about the types of implants and associated risks. We also describe what to expect from dental implant surgery and how much the procedure may cost.
What are dental implants?
A dental implant is a structure that replaces a missing tooth. With screw-like devices, the surgeon inserts an implant into the jawbone, and it acts as an anchor for an artificial tooth, called a crown.
A device called an abutment connects the artificial tooth to the dental implant.
The crown is custom-made to fit the person’s mouth and match the color of their teeth. Crowns look, feel, and function like natural teeth.
Implants have several advantages over dentures, which are removable artificial teeth. Implants:
are more natural and comfortable
have a higher success rate
improve chewing function
lead to a lower risk of cavities developing in nearby teeth
lead to better maintenance of bone at the site of the lost tooth
cause decreased sensitivity in nearby teeth
do not need to be taken out and cleaned every night
However, dental implants are not suitable for everyone. The implanting devices must bond with the jawbone, so a person’s bones must be healthy before they can undergo implant surgery.
There are two types of dental implant: endosteal and subperiosteal.
Endosteal implants are the most common type. A surgeon embeds them in the jawbone, and each can hold one or more artificial teeth.
A surgeon affixes a subperiosteal implant on top of the jawbone. Dental surgeons choose this option for people who do not have much height to their jawbone.
According to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry, around 3 million people in the United States have dental implants, and this number increases by about 500,000 every year.
Dental implant surgery is safe when a qualified and experienced surgeon or dentist performs it. It is also the only dental restoration option that maintains the health of the person’s jawbone and stimulates its growth.
Some people are not eligible for dental implant surgery. It is not safe for dental surgeons to operate on people with:
uncontrollable metabolic disease
bone or soft tissue disease or infection
If these issues are resolved, a person can have the surgery.
In some cases, dental surgeons refrain from operating on people with:
heavy smoking habits
parafunctional habits, such as tooth grinding or clenching
behavioral or psychiatric disorders
If people with any of the above undergo dental implant surgery, there is a higher risk of the implant failing.
Dental surgeons may also choose not to operate on people undergoing the following treatments, due to an increased risk of implant complications:
bisphosphonate drug treatment for bone loss diseases
radiation therapy of the head or neck
Potential complications of implant surgery
People who undergo this procedure may experience complications during or afterward. The issues may include:
nerve damage, resulting in altered sensation in the surgical area
an opening of the incision following surgery
movement of the implant
exposure of the implant above the gumline
infection of the implant
People who experience movement or exposure of the implant may need to undergo additional procedures to improve the health of the bone and gums or remove or replace the implant.
The following are some signs and symptoms that an implant placement has been unsuccessful:
the implant is excessively mobile
pus or other secretions come from the site
pain when tapping the implant
rapid, progressive bone loss
Each person is likely to have a different experience of dental implant surgery. Factors that may influence this include:
the number of teeth requiring replacement
the location of the implants within the jaw
the quality and quantity of bone at the implant site
the person’s underlying oral and systemic health
Depending on these factors, additional procedures may be necessary. These can include:
Placing an implant in the upper jawbone is usually difficult because of the location of the sinuses.
The surgeon may need to perform a sinus augmentation — a procedure to lift the floor of the sinuses to allow more bone to develop so that the implantation can be successful.
Some people have a jawbone abnormality that prevents enough bone for an implant from developing. In such cases, a surgeon may need to perform a ridge modification.
This involves lifting the gum to expose the area of deformed bone. The surgeon will then use a bone or bone substitute to repair and build up the area. This improves the quality of the jawbone in preparation for dental implant surgery.
After a person has undergone dental implant surgery, they must continue to brush and floss their teeth regularly. Artificial teeth require the same care and maintenance as regular teeth.
The surgeon or dentist will also schedule follow-up visits to monitor the implants and make sure that the teeth and gums are healthy. It is important to return to the dentist every 6 months for professional cleanings.
The cost of dental implant surgery varies, and the following factors can influence it:
the number and types of implants required
the location of the implants within the jaw
whether there is a need for any additional procedures to prepare the mouth for surgery
A dentist or another oral health professional can estimate the cost of dental implant surgery during an initial examination.
Some dental insurance policies cover a larger portion of the cost.
Other tooth replacement options, such as bridges, may be less expensive. However, bridges are harder to keep clean and often require replacement and repair, increasing the overall cost. Dental implants may provide longer-term benefits if a person takes care of them well.
Dental implants are fixtures in the bone that replace missing teeth. Implants have a high success rate and can provide long-term benefits.
Some people need additional procedures to prepare their mouth for dental implants. These will add to the overall cost. The number and type of implants required can also raise the cost.
Anyone considering dental implant surgery should ask their dentist whether it is right for them.
Researchers have found that living in polluted cities may cause the bones to be weaker and easier to break.
The researchers also found that city-dwellers exposed to toxic air have weaker hips and spines and are more prone to fractures
The Spanish researchers believe that bones are weakened because tiny pollutants seep into the blood when inhaled and speed up the ageing process.
A study carried out India of nearly 4,000 people found that those exposed to toxic particles had less bone density in their lower back and those who inhaled more toxic airborne particles had less bone mass in their spines and hips.
Meanwhile, previous studies have linked pollution to low levels of parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium production, leading to more fragile bones.
Researchers found that smog-filled towns and cities have been linked to an increased risk of stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory diseases such as asthma and even dementia.
Although, there have only been a few studies into the effect of toxic airborne particles on bone health, the results have so far been inconclusive.
Researchers from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health in their latest paper, looked at 3,700 people who were all residents from 28 villages outside the city of Hyderabad in southern India between 2009 and 2012.
The researchers took measurements of PM2.5 and black carbon in the atmosphere in each village.
PM2.5 is the finest type of particulate matter, while black carbon is a larger toxin. Both come mainly from petrol and diesel vehicle exhausts.
Their analysis revealed average PM2.5 exposure was 33 micrograms per metre cubed (ug/m3) – far above the maximum 10ug/m3 levels recommended by the World Health Organisation.
By comparison, the average level is 13ug/m3 in London, 12ug/m3 in New York and 10ug/m3 in Sydney.
The researchers also cross-referenced pollution levels with X-rays measuring bone mass in participants’ lower back, known as the lumbar spine, and hip.
The results showed that exposure to air pollution was associated with lower levels of bone mass.
For every 3ug/m3 increase in fine particulate matter, there was a decrease of -0.57g of bone mass in the spine and -0.13g in the hip, while an increase of 1ug/m3 of carbon saw bone density shrink by -1.13g in the spine and -0.35g in the hip.
The study lead author, Otavio Ranzani said: “This study contributes to the limited and inconclusive literature on air pollution and bone health.
“Inhalation of polluting particles could lead to bone mass loss through the oxidative stress and inflammation caused by air pollution.’ The findings were published in the journal Jama Network Open.
However, a 2017 study by Columbia University of more than nine million people was the first to find a link between traffic fumes and fractures caused by osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a health condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more likely to break.
The study linked pollution exposure to low levels of parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium production, leading to weaker bones and more hospitalisations for fractures.
The study found hospital admissions for bone fractures were higher in communities with elevated levels of PM2.5, as more than 80 per cent of the world’s urban population is breathing unsafe levels of air pollution.
Described as an invisible killer, it causes an estimated seven million premature deaths yearly worldwide, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO).
However, health experts fear that pollution is also fuelling increases in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.
Previous studies found that air pollution has a negative impact on students’ cognitive abilities.
Many pollutants are thought to directly affect brain chemistry in a variety of ways.
For instance, particulate matter from traffic and industry can carry toxins through small passageways and directly enter the brain.
However, some people experience subtle symptoms during the earlier stages of the disease.
The early lung cancer symptoms that we describe below usually result from some other cause. However, people who experience these symptoms should consider visiting their doctors as a precautionary measure.
They estimate that 40% of people who receive a cancer diagnosis experience unexplained weight loss during that time.
Cancer can cause weight loss for many reasons, including:
changes to immune function
changes to metabolism
changes to hormones
a sudden loss of appetite
Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath and wheezing can also be early symptoms of lung cancer.
Some people may experience a slight cough in addition to shortness of breath. Others may have difficulty catching their breath but have no cough.
A slight cough that does not go away can indicate early stage lung cancer. Some people assume that this cough is only a result of smoking.
A person who regularly coughs because of another lung condition may notice changes in their cough, and these can likewise indicate lung cancer.
Also, a cough that produces blood may result from lung cancer or another issue with the lungs. Anyone who experiences this symptom should see a doctor.
Lung cancer can cause the number of red blood cells in the body to drop. The medical term for this issue is anemia.
Because red blood cells carry oxygen, a person with anemia may not take in enough oxygen to support their body’s needs. This can result in tiredness and fatigue. Severe fatigue can make it difficult to function on a day-to-day level.
Shoulder, chest, or back pain
Most people with lung cancer do not feel pain or other symptoms during the early stages. This is because there are very few nerve endings in the lungs.
However, pain can occur when lung cancer invades the chest wall, ribs, vertebrae, or certain nerves. For example, Pancoast tumors, which form at the very top of the lungs, often invade nearby tissues, causing shoulder pain.
As a tumor develops, a person may begin to feel pain in their:
A person with lung cancer or another respiratory disease may develop a hoarse, raspy voice.
This can happen if a tumor presses on the laryngeal nerve, which is located within the chest. When the nerve is compressed, it can paralyze a vocal cord, causing the voice to change.
using other tobacco products, such as cigars or pipe tobacco
inhaling secondhand smoke
being exposed to radon gas, possibly from materials within the home
working with dangerous chemicals, such as asbestos, arsenic, or diesel
living in a highly polluted area
having other lung conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
having a family history of lung cancer
When describing risk, organizations and experts sometimes use the term “pack-year.” A pack-year refers to the number of cigarettes smoked per day each year. So a person with a 30 pack-year smoking history may have:
smoked one pack per day for 30 years
smoked two packs per day for 15 years
The ACS recommend yearly lung cancer screenings for people aged 55–74 who:
currently smoke or have quit smoking in the past 15 years
have at least a 30 pack-year smoking history
currently smoke and are receiving counseling to help them quit
are aware of the potential benefits and harms of screening
have access to a facility that has experience with lung cancer screening and treatment
Screening cannot detect every instance of lung cancer, but it does lower a person’s chance of dying from the disease.
Smokers vs. nonsmokers
According to the CDC, people who smoke are 15–30 times more likely to die from lung cancer than people who do not.
Meanwhile, according to statistics from 2013–2014, about 1 in 4 people who do not smoke, including children, are exposed to secondhand smoke. This increases their risk of developing the disease.
Quitting smoking at any age can lower the risk of lung cancer.
When to see a doctor
The symptoms above usually result from issues other than lung cancer. However, anyone who experiences any of the following issues should visit a doctor:
a cough that lasts longer than 2–3 weeks
a persistent cough that worsens
a cough that produces blood
aches or pains when breathing or coughing
persistent shortness of breath
persistent tiredness or fatigue
recurrent chest infections
unexplained weight loss
Lung cancer is the second most common form of cancer. It can affect anyone but is particularly prevalent among people who smoke.
Usually, lung cancer does not cause symptoms until it has spread. As a result, it is not always possible to detect lung cancer in its earliest stages.
Nonetheless, some people experience subtle symptoms during the initial stages. It is important to recognize these because treatment is typically more effective when a person receives it early.
Anyone who experiences early symptoms of lung cancer should see a doctor. In many cases, something other than cancer is the cause. Still, it is best to seek medical advice as a precaution.
Can insufficient sleep be harmful to bone health? New research in postmenopausal women has found that those who slept for no longer than 5 hours per night were most likely to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis.
A team from the University at Buffalo, NY, led the study of 11,084 postmenopausal women, all of whom were participants in the Women’s Health Initiative.
The investigation follows an earlier one in which the team had linked short sleep to a higher likelihood of bone fracture in women.
“Our study suggests that sleep may negatively impact bone health, adding to the list of the negative health impacts of poor sleep,” says lead study author Heather M. Ochs-Balcom, Ph.D., an associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health at the University at Buffalo School of Public Health and Health Professions.
“I hope,” she adds, “that it can also serve as a reminder to strive for the recommended 7 or more hours of sleep per night for our physical and mental health.”
Bone remodeling and osteoporosis
Bone is living tissue that undergoes continuous formation and resorption. The process, known as bone remodeling, removes old bone tissue and replaces it with new bone tissue.
“If you are sleeping less, one possible explanation is that bone remodeling isn’t happening properly,” Ochs-Balcom explains.
The term osteoporosis means porous bone and refers to a condition that develops when the quality and density of bone are greatly reduced. Osteoporosis is more common in older adults, with older women having the highest risk of developing it.
In most people, bone strength and density peak when they are in their late 20s. After that, as they continue to age, the rate of bone resorption gradually overtakes that of formation. The bone density of women reduces more rapidly during the first few years after menopause.
Worldwide, around 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men in their 50s and older are at risk of experiencing bone fracture due to osteoporosis, according to the International Osteoporosis Foundation.
The most common sites of fracture in people with osteoporosis are the hips, wrists, and spine.
Spinal fractures can be serious, resulting in severe back pain, structural irregularities, and loss of height. Hip fractures are also of concern, as they often require surgery and can lead to loss of independence. They also carry a raised risk of death.
Lower BMD measures tied to short sleep
In the new study, the team found that compared with women who slept more, those who reported getting only up to 5 hours of sleep per night had significantly lower values in four measures of BMD.
The four BMD measures were of the whole body, the hip, the neck, and the spine.
The researchers note that the lower BMD measures among the short sleep group were equivalent to being 1 year older.
The results were independent of other factors that could potentially influence them, such as age, race, the effects of menopause, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI), use of sleeping pills, exercise, and type of bone density scanner.
The researchers emphasize that there is a positive message in these findings: Sleep, as with diet and exercise, is often something that people can work to change.
“It’s really important to eat health[fully], and physical activity is important for bone health. That’s the exciting part of this story — most of us have control over when we turn off the lights, when we put the phone down.”
A twitch is a small, involuntary contraction and relaxation of a muscle or group of muscles. The medical term for twitches is “fasciculations,” and they can occur in any muscular area, including the fingers.
People with finger twitching may worry that they are developing a neurological disorder. However, when this twitching does not accompany other symptoms, it is typically not a cause for concern.
Physical exertion, fatigue, and drinking too much caffeine can cause or worsen muscle twitching.
In this article, we explore nine causes of finger twitching and their treatments. We also offer advice about when to see a doctor.
flunarizine, a drug that interrupts the movement of calcium
topiramate, a drug that helps treat epilepsy
lithium, a psychiatric medication
If a person thinks that a medication is causing muscle twitching, they should speak with their doctor before stopping the treatment.
The doctor may recommend lowering the dosage or switching to an alternative medication, if possible.
2. Magnesium deficiency
A magnesium deficiency can cause muscle cramps and tremors. This issue is rare among otherwise healthy people because the kidneys limit the amount of magnesium excreted in urine.
However, certain factors can increase the chances of developing a magnesium deficiency. These include:
alcohol use disorder
some other medical conditions
A person with a magnesium deficiency may initially experience:
a loss of appetite
If the deficiency becomes severe, the person may experience additional symptoms, such as:
muscle contractions and cramps
an irregular heartbeat
A magnesium deficiency may affect other minerals in the body, such as calcium and potassium. Deficiencies in these minerals can cause additional symptoms and complications.
A doctor may recommend magnesium supplements. However, anyone who suspects that they have a nutrient deficiency should speak to a doctor before trying a supplement.
3. Vitamin E deficiency
In 2011Trusted Source, doctors reported a case of a male in his mid-20s who had a vitamin E deficiency and developed a tremor in his upper limbs and trunk. The man also experienced:
changes in gait and posture
a decline in cognition
The medical team concluded that the tremor resulted from the vitamin E deficiency, but noted that this symptom of the deficiency is rare.
The treatment for involuntary movements caused by a vitamin E deficiency is a high dosage of oral vitamin E supplements.
Anyone who suspects that they have a nutrient deficiency should consult a doctor, who can recommend the right dosage of supplements.
4. Benign fasciculation syndrome
People with benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) have widespread involuntary muscle twitches.
Symptoms are usually present for years, and some clinicians only diagnose BFS if the symptoms have existed for at least 5 yearsTrusted Source.
Doctors do not know what causes BFS. However, one 2013 study found a link between this syndrome and decreased neurological activity in the small nerve fibers in the skin and sweat glands. Confirming this relationship will require more research.
Nonetheless, researchers have successfully controlled muscle twitching with the drug gabapentin, which acts on the nervous system.
Also, some doctorsTrusted Source have found that certain drugs that treat epilepsy, such as carbamazepine and phenytoin, can reduce muscle twitches.
It is worth noting, however, that using the drugs above to treat twitching constitutes off-label use. “Off-label use” refers to a doctor treating one condition with a drug that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved to treat a different condition.
5. Essential tremor
Essential tremor is the repeated, involuntary movement of a body part. In a person with essential tremor, the movements occur with consistent frequency and force.
Essential tremor is the most common neurological cause of tremors, but doctors do not know what causes the condition.
People usually experience essential tremor in their hands. In some people, the tremor extends to the arms or head, and it can also affect a person’s voice.
Essential tremor does not change a person’s life expectancy. However, it can affect a person’s quality of life and cause disability.
Some people seek treatment for essential tremor, and both medical and nonmedical interventions can help.
Regarding medication, doctors will use trial and error to find the most appropriate drug and dosage for each person. The following table lists the first, second, and third lines of treatment for essential tremor.
First line of treatment
Second line of treatment
Third line of treatment
combination of propranolol and primidone
These drugs have not received FDA approval to treat essential tremor specifically, but some doctors prescribe them for this purpose on an off-label basis.
Also, a person may find that weighing down the affected area helps control their tremor. For example, a weighted wrist band may help with essential tremor in the hand.
Additionally, doctors may recommend relaxation techniques for people whose tremors are worsened by anxiety. They may also recommend avoiding caffeine, as this can increase tremors.
There are four parathyroid glands. They are small, they sit inside the neck, and they produce parathyroid hormone, which helps raise levels of calcium in the blood.
The term “hyperparathyroidism” refers to overactivity of one or more parathyroid glands. This overactivity causes an imbalance in calcium and potassium in the body, which may lead to muscle twitching.
Other symptoms of hyperparathyroidism include:
joint and bone pain
problems with memory and concentration
The only known cure for hyperparathyroidism is surgery to remove the affected parathyroid glands.
Certain drugs, such as bisphosphonates and synthetic estrogen, may decrease calcium or parathyroid hormone levels and improve bone-related symptoms. However, they cannot cure hyperparathyroidism.
7. Tourette’s syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and repetitive movements and vocalizations. Doctors refer to these occurrences as “tics.”
People with Tourette’s syndrome have multiple tics that start during childhood. Movement, or motor, tics are sudden and recurrent. They are usuallyTrusted Source triggered by an urge and can affect any part of the body.
In order to receive a diagnosis of Tourette’s syndrome, a person must experience:
multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics throughout the illness, though these may not occur together
tics that persist for more than 1 year
symptoms that begin before the age of 18
symptoms that are unrelated to substances or other medical conditions
Doctors usually do not prescribe medication to treat Tourette’s syndrome. However, children tend to respond well to behavioral interventions for tics.
Children with Tourette’s syndrome may have accompanying psychiatric disorders that require appropriate treatment. These may include:
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD
obsessive-compulsive disorder, or OCD
oppositional defiant disorder, or ODD
Over time, tics can disappear, but symptoms of any psychiatric disorder may persist.
8. Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the brain that usually occurs in adults over 50.
A person with Parkinson’s may experience a tremor. This typically begins on one side of the body and worsens over time.
Some other symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include:
Parkinson’s disease causes a loss of cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This area makes dopamine, a neurochemical that helps control and coordinate body movements.
Doctors initially treat Parkinson’s disease with the drug levodopa. This is a synthetic version of an amino acid that the body converts into dopamine.
Taking supplementary levodopa helps control some symptoms of dopamine deficiency.
As the disease progresses, people need additional treatments. Doctors may prescribe the following drugs in addition to levodopa:
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors: These help slow the depletion of dopamine and increase the availability of levodopa.
Drugs that act on acetylcholine receptors: These help reduce muscle twitching and rigidity.
A doctor may also prescribe ropinirole or pramipexole to further activate dopamine receptors in the brain.
9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive motor neuron disease, and its symptoms gradually worsen over time.
In the beginning stages, ALS can cause muscle twitches in the hand or arm. Over time, a person may develop muscle weakness, which can spread to other parts of the body.
Swallowing, speech, and breathing problems can occur as the disease continues to progress.
Some common symptoms of ALS include:
muscle tightness and stiffness
slurred, nasal speech
difficulty chewing or swallowing
Currently, there is no cure for ALS. However, certain treatments can help control symptoms, prevent complications, and improve the quality of life.
The FDA have, so far, approved the following medications to treat ALS:
Riluzole: This drug reduces damage to neurons involved in movement, although it cannot reverse the damage.
Edaravone: This drug slows a decline in daily functioning.
When to see a doctor
In young, healthy people, finger twitching is likely a symptom of overexertion. Often, this stems from overuse of cellphones, computers, and video games.
If the twitching continues, with no clear cause, consult a doctor. They will likely perform an examination to rule out a neurological disorder.
If finger twitching affects daily activities or the quality of life, see a doctor. Some causes can be treated with rest or vitamin supplements, while others require further medical intervention.
People who experience finger twitching may worry that they have a neurological disorder. However, there are many relatively harmless causes of this issue, including overexertion, fatigue, and consuming too much caffeine.
If finger twitching results from a neurological diseases, the person will usually experience additional signs and symptoms.
See a doctor if there is no clear cause of finger twitching or if the movements persist or worsen.
Pain under the left armpit can be concerning, and many people associate any pain on the left side of their body with a heart attack. However, most of the time, pain under the left armpit has a less serious cause.
The armpit is a complex meeting point for muscles and connective tissues, lymph nodes, and blood vessels. As such, many issues in this area can lead to pain.
Causes range from pulled muscles and mild allergic reactions to more severe issues, such as an underlying infection.
While many of the causes of left armpit pain are not harmful in the long term, anyone experiencing breathing difficulties and pain in their chest, jaw, or neck should see a doctor immediately.
Causes of left armpit pain include:
A pulled muscle
Many muscles around the shoulder and armpit can cause pain if a person injures them.
People can pull a muscle when reaching for an object, twisting incorrectly, or overstretching.
People who exercise regularly, especially those who do weight training, may be more likely to experience muscle pulls and strains.
In these cases, the pain should go away over time, as long as the individual rests the injured muscle and does gentle stretches.
If the pain does not go away after about a week, it is best to see a doctor.
Armpits are a frequent location for allergic reactions, which could cause pain under the left armpit or both armpits.
Most allergic reactions in this area will occur due to chemicals people apply to their bodies or clothes that touch the armpits.
Possible allergens include:
moisturizing creams or lotions
These products may contain chemicals or perfumes that irritate the skin. A rash may also form.
Anyone who suspects that their skin is sensitive to a particular allergen should note the products they used that day and report them to a dermatologist.
Allergy testing may help find the irritating product. Avoiding products with any harsh chemicals or other ingredients can also improve symptoms in these cases.
Simple cosmetic procedures, such as shaving or waxing, can also be to blame for pain under the armpit. These hair removal techniques may lead to other issues, such as ingrown hairs, cysts, or general irritation and chafing in the armpit.
A skin infection under the armpit may cause itching and pain. Bacteria thrive in warm, damp environments such as the armpits.
An overgrowth of bacteria in this area may lead to an infection, which could cause redness, swelling, and pain, among other symptoms.
Other forms of infection, such as fungal infections due to ringworm or yeast, may also cause similar pain and irritation in the area.
Mild skin infections should clear up without treatment if a person keeps the area clean and dry. However, a doctor may recommend antibiotic creams or medications to treat more severe cases.
Hidradenitis is a chronic condition that causes similar symptoms to severe acne. Hidradenitis occurs due to clogged hair follicles and glands. It is common in areas such as the armpits, where the skin rubs together.
Hidradenitis can lead to multiple cysts or boils developing in the area. In addition to these breakouts, the person will likely experience pain and tenderness.
Doctors can treat hidradenitis with anti-inflammatory medications. Some cases may require surgery.
Varicella zoster virus
The varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox and shingles. Breakouts of both illnesses are possible under the armpits, although chickenpox usually beginsTrusted Source on the face, back, and chest.
A shingles rash usually developsTrusted Source as a single strip on one side of the face or body, left or right. A person with shingles may also experience:
an upset stomach
A person may feel pain and tingling in the area before the visible rash develops.
A doctor may prescribe antiviral medications to speed up the healing process, as well as pain medications to help ease symptoms.
Swollen lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are small, bean shaped bundles of tissue that play a vital role in the immune system. Lymph nodes help filter toxins from the lymph and deliver white blood cells to help fight disease.
The armpit houses a large number of lymph nodes. Lymph nodes swell as part of an overall reaction by the immune system, such as to an infection or illness.
Swollen lymph nodes in the armpit may cause:
a single or multiple lumps
If the swelling does not go down after an infection, such as the common cold, goes away, or the person is not feeling any other symptoms, they should speak to a doctor.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition that leads to an overgrowth of skin cells. The buildup of skin cells forms patches called plaques. These plaques can cause symptoms such as itching and pain.
Psoriasis plaques can form anywhere, including the armpit. Some forms of psoriasis are more common in this area, including inverse psoriasis.
Psoriasis treatment typically includes both topical and oral medications to control symptoms.
Nerve damage may also cause pain under the armpit. Nerve damage can be the result of a physical injury, such as one from overuse during sports or from an accident or fall.
While peripheral neuropathy typically affects the feet and legs, it may also affect the arms in some individuals. Diabetes treatment may help slow nerve damage progression.
Angina occurs due to a lack of oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart. This can be because one of the arteries leading to the heart is narrow or blocked.
Angina causes chest pain and discomfort, which is sometimes severe. It may also cause pressure and pain in other areas, including the:
Some people may also experience a feeling similar to indigestion.
Angina is a symptom of an underlying heart condition, for example, coronary heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
There are also many other types of angina. Anyone who suspects they have angina should talk to their doctor.
In rare cases, pain under the left armpit that does not go away may be a sign of a cancerous growth, including breast cancer.
Cancer can cause the lymph nodes under the armpit to swell painfully. An individual may notice a lump under their arm or in their armpit that causes persistent pain or discomfort.
Underarm pain may also be the result of a specific cancer treatment, such as lymph node removal or mastectomy.
Anyone noticing texture changes or lumps in their chest or breast tissue should seek medical attention.
Treatment options for cancer will depend on its stage, which refers to how much it has spread. In general, earlier stages are easier to treat.
When to see a doctor
Anyone noticing the following symptoms along with left armpit pain should seek immediate medical attention:
shortness of breath
pain in the chest, jaw, or shoulder
A doctor can also diagnose and treat pain from other issues, such as infections or swollen lymph nodes.
Pain under the left armpit from sources such as a pulled muscle should go away within about a week in most cases. Anyone who experiences symptoms beyond this time frame should see a doctor for a full diagnosis.
There are many possible causes of pain under the left armpit. The person may have pulled a muscle or may have swollen lymph nodes from an infection.
Other causes can be more serious, such as angina. Anyone concerned about their symptoms should see a doctor for a full diagnosis and treatment.
Neck tension refers to neck pain that develops when the muscles in the neck cannot relax, which can lead to soreness, muscle spasms, and headaches. It has numerous possible causes, ranging from joint problems to inflamed nerves.
Depending on the underlying cause, people can experience different types of neck tension and pain, which distinct symptoms can accompany. Research suggests that as many as 71% of adultsTrusted Source around the world will experience neck pain at some point in their lifetime.
Continue reading this article to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of neck tension.
The brain sends electrical signals, or nerve impulses, to trigger muscle movement. Muscles can either contract or relax, depending on the message that they receive from the brain.
Muscle tension occurs when a muscle stays contracted despite receiving signals from the brain that tell it to relax. If a muscle remains contracted for too long, it can cause pain.
People can develop neck tension for numerous reasons. Common causes of neck tension include:
Poor posture can affect the neck muscles. People who find themselves hunching over their computer or slouching in their chair all day may notice some neck tension after a while.
The authors of a 2016 studyTrusted Source involving 126 college students found a correlation between a forward head position and increased neck pain and disability.
Poor posture can cause the weight of the head to shift forward and away from the center of the body, forcing the neck muscles to work harder to support the head.
Hunching over a computer or looking down at a phone not only moves the head forward but also forces the neck to bend with it. This bending can overextend the muscles in the back of the neck, resulting in pain and inflammation.
Sleeping in the wrong position
Posture affects the body at all times, even during sleep. People who sleep on their stomachs tend to rest one side of their face on the pillow. Doing this can overextend the muscles on that side of the neck.
Sleeping with large pillows can elevate the head too high, forcing the neck to bend forward. Staying in this position throughout the night may result in neck tension the following morning.
Repetitive neck movements
People who perform repetitive movements throughout the day can develop repetitive motion disorders.
Without treatment, repetitive motion disorders can lead to pain, swelling, and even permanent tissue damage.
Bruxism is a condition in which people grind or clench their teeth while they sleep. Grinding or clenching the teeth puts pressure on the muscles in the jaw and neck, which can cause neck tension, pain, and headaches.
A person can injure the muscles in their neck if they lift heavy weights, play impact sports, or experience whiplash from a car accident.
These types of injuries can cause mild-to-severe muscle strains, which may require medical treatment or physical therapy.
Untreated muscle strains can lead to persistent neck pain and even permanent damage that reduces the range of motion and flexibility in the neck.
Stress has a powerful effect on the entire body. When the brain senses stress, it signals the release of several hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine. These hormones increase the heart rate and blood pressure, as well as tightening the muscles.
When a person experiences stress regularly, their muscles remain tense and contracted for longer periods, which can result in neck and shoulder tension.
According to a 2017 study involving 148 people with migraine, nearly 67% of the participants also experienced tension-type headaches and neck pain.
These individuals also reported higher levels of stress, engaged in less physical activity, and rated their health poorly in comparison with the participants who had migraine without tension headaches and neck pain.
The symptoms of neck tension can vary in their severity but typically include:
muscle stiffness or soreness
sharp or intense pain that worsens with movement
Stretching helps improve flexibility and range of motion, while exercising increases muscle strength. Improving muscle flexibility and strength can help support proper posture and relieve neck tension. People may find the following stretches and exercises beneficial in preventing or relieving neck tension:
Basic neck stretch
To perform a basic neck stretch, people can follow these steps:
Sit or stand up straight with the neck in a neutral position and the arms and shoulders relaxed.
Reach the right hand over the head, placing the palm on the left side of the head.
Stretch the left side of the neck by gently pulling the head over to the right.
Hold this stretch for 30 seconds and then repeat on the other side.
Neck rolls involve the following series of movements:
Begin with the head in a neutral position.
Drop the chin toward the chest.
Slowly roll the head to one side so that the ear almost touches the shoulder.
Continue rolling the head in the same direction, allowing the top of the head to face backward.
Bring the head around to the other shoulder.
Complete a full rotation by bringing the head to the front of the body, keeping the chin tucked into the chest.
Do 5–10 neck rolls in one direction and then repeat the exercise going in the opposite direction.
Forward neck stretch
This simple stretch may help relieve tension:
Sit or stand with a straight back, keeping the shoulders and arms relaxed.
Interlace the fingers and place the palms on the back of the head with the elbows facing forward.
Gently pull the head down toward the chest.
Hold this stretch for 30 seconds.
Side-to-side neck exercise
People can perform this exercise as follows:
Sit upright with the shoulders back and the head and neck in a neutral position.
Slowly rotate the head from side to side, keeping the chin parallel to the ground.
Keep the rotations small to avoid overextending the neck muscles.
Complete 5–10 rotations on each side.
Shoulder blade squeeze
A shoulder blade squeeze requires a person to follow the steps below:
Stand up straight and spread the feet apart.
Start with the shoulders in a relaxed position.
Squeeze the shoulder blades together behind the body.
Hold for 5 seconds.
Repeat this exercise 5–10 times.
People can follow these steps to do a standing pushup:
Stand about an arm’s length away from a wall with the feet spread apart.
Place the hands on the wall, making sure that they align with the shoulders.
Keeping the back straight, slowly bend the elbows, bringing the upper body toward the wall.
Straighten the elbows and return to the starting position.
Repeat this exercise 5–10 times.
In addition to the stretches and exercises above, people can relieve neck tension with rest, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and lifestyle changes.
The following remedies may help people manage neck tension:
applying a cold compress to reduce pain and inflammation
applying a warm compress to help relax tense neck muscles
taking OTC pain relievers to reduce mild-to-moderate muscle pain
taking an Epsom salt bath
practicing stress management and relaxation techniques, such as meditation and yoga
getting a massage
changing sleeping positions and using pillows that support the neck without overextending it
When to see a doctor
People may wish to see a doctor if they experience persistent neck tension that does not improve with at-home exercises and remedies.
People may require immediate medical attention if they develop neck pain after an injury or a car accident or if they experience the following symptoms:
intense or sharp neck pain
People who grind or clench their teeth at night can speak with a dentist about getting a bite guard to wear at night.
Neck pain is a common complaint that affects people all around the world. Muscle tension is a common cause of neck pain and can develop as a result of poor posture, repetitive movements, and injuries, among other factors.
People can relieve neck tension by stretching the neck muscles, which improves flexibility and range of motion. Exercises that target the muscles in the back, shoulders, and neck can help improve a person’s posture and prevent neck tension.
People who experience neck tension that interferes with their ability to function normally may wish to consider speaking with a doctor about medical treatment options.