Erectile dysfunction

Developed in Israel, where it has been available for eight years, Vigore treatment is said not only to assist men with erectile dysfunction (ED) but also to help those who are just not as good as they were in their 20s and 30s.

The treatment normally involves four blasts of sound waves lasting about five minutes each, with an interval of one week between each session. The idea is that the sound waves kick-start the growth of new blood vessels, which boosts blood supply and so improves, reduced erections.

Some studies suggest there is a benefit. One, carried out by researchers in Spain, and published in the World Journal Of Urology in July, looked at 76 men with erectile dysfunction who had failed to improve on drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra), taken just before intercourse, or tadalafil, a similar, but daily, tablet.

Shockwave treatment, such as Vigore, involves a doctor passing a wand-like device along the penis while it emits gentle pulses for 15 to 20 minutes. This stimulates the growth of new blood vessels to increase blood supply to the penis and is also thought to promote the release of nitric oxide, which helps dilate blood vessels.

Meanwhile, scientists say a quick blast with a laser can boost a woman’s sex drive. Experts found a painless five-minute zap increased libido and the number of orgasms.

The “fractional CO2 laser” involves rotating the device in the vagina, sending pulses of heat to tissue. It causes tiny wounds that trigger collagen production and boost blood flow.

The study, in 50 older women, compared regular hormonal cream with three laser sessions, which cost from £1,000.

It found sexual desire soared by 45 per cent and arousal by 56 per cent with the laser. The cream scores only went up 30 per cent and 27 per cent.

Post-laser satisfaction also rose by 40 per cent, with orgasms up 46 per cent, reported the Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences.

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Although antianxiety medications target the nervous system, one new study suggests that anxiety disorders may stem more from the endocrine system.

Most people have brief periods of anxiety from time to time, such as when they experience stressful situations in which the outcome is unknown.

For many individuals, however, anxiety is an acute, frequent, and persistent emotional state that adversely affects quality of life. In fact, experts estimate that anxiety disorders affect around 264 million people worldwide.

Antianxiety medications, which typically target the central nervous system, can be helpful, but they often fail to provide permanent relief.

Now, a new study suggests that anxiety disorders may stem, at least in part, from malfunctions in the body’s endocrine system.

The results demonstrate that inflammation of the thyroid gland is associated with anxiety disorders, suggesting new avenues of treatment.

The researchers presented their findings at the European and International Conference on Obesity in September 2020. Juliya Onofriichuk, from Kyiv City Clinical Hospital in Ukraine, led the research.

She explains: “These findings indicate that the endocrine system may play an important role in anxiety. Doctors should also consider the thyroid gland and the rest of the endocrine system, as well as the nervous system, when examining [people] with anxiety.”

The thyroid gland

The thyroid gland produces two important hormones — T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) — that are involved in maintaining heart and muscle function, digestion, brain development, and bone health.

T4 and T3 help produce and regulate the hormones adrenaline and dopamine.

Adrenaline is sometimes known as the fight-or-flight hormone. It is associated with a sudden burst of energy, such as that which occurs in response to a threat.

Dopamine is the brain’s pleasure and reward hormone, and too much (or too little) of it can affect a person’s sense of well-being and quality of judgment.

Inflammation of the thyroid gland typically occurs when the body mistakenly targets the gland as an unwelcome invader. When this occurs, the body produces antibodies that attack the gland. These antibodies may damage the thyroid and can cause it to malfunction.

The study

Onofriichuk and colleagues studied 29 men and 27 women. Their average ages were 33.9 years and 31.7 years, respectively. Doctors had diagnosed anxiety in these individuals, and they all experienced anxiety attacks.

The scientists examined the participants’ thyroid glands using ultrasound. They also measured their levels of T4 and T3.

The researchers found that the thyroids of people with anxiety disorders exhibited signs of inflammation. They also detected thyroid antibodies in these individuals.

Even though the participants’ thyroid glands were inflamed, they were not significantly malfunctioning. Their T4 and T3 levels were slightly elevated but remained within a normal range.

To treat the inflammation, the researchers gave the participants a 14-day course of ibuprofen and thyroxine. This treatment successfully reduced thyroid inflammation.

Once the inflammation had resolved, the individuals experienced lower levels of anxiety, according to tests that the researchers carried out.

The implications of the study

The researchers did not investigate the role of sex and adrenal gland hormones in anxiety, though other research has noted the possible influence of the latter. Even so, the team’s findings offer new hope for people with anxiety.

Anxiety treatments may be more effective when they take into account the role of the endocrine system. The new study suggests that anxiety is not exclusively a disorder of the central nervous system.

It is worth noting that, to date, this particular study has not undergone peer review and does not appear in a medical journal.

Also, the study was relatively small, so scientists will need to replicate the findings in large-scale, placebo-controlled studies before drawing any solid conclusions.

Next up for the researchers is a wider investigation of the endocrine system’s role in anxiety disorders. They plan to explore the influence of sex and adrenal gland hormones — including estrogentestosterone, cortisol, progesterone, and prolactin — in people with diagnosed anxiety disorders and inflamed thyroid glands.

If your cholesterol level has crept up over the years, you may wonder whether changing your diet can help. Ideally, your total cholesterol value should be 200 milligrammes per deciliter (mg/dL) or lower. But it is the harmful Low-Density Lipo-protein (LDL) ‘bad’ cholesterol value that experts worry about the most. Excess LDL builds up on artery walls and triggers a release of inflammatory substances that boost heart attack risk.

“To prevent heart disease, your LDL should be 100 mg/dL or lower,” says Dr. Jorge Plutzky, director of preventive cardiology at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital. But many Americans have LDL values that are less than optimal (100 to 129 mg/dL) or borderline high (130 to 159 mg/dL).

If you fall into either of those categories, you may be able to nudge down your LDL to a healthier level by changing what you eat, particularly if your current diet could use some improvement. However, most people with higher LDL values likely will also need to take a cholesterol-lowering drug, such as a statin, says Dr. Plutzky.

Dietary directives
Avoiding foods that are high in cholesterol isn’t the best way to lower your LDL. Your overall diet — especially the types of fats and carbohydrates you eat — has the most impact on your blood cholesterol values. “As the American Heart Association has noted, you’ll get the biggest bang for your buck by lowering saturated fat and replacing it with unsaturated fat,” says registered dietitian Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

That means avoiding meat, cheese, and other high-fat dairy products such as butter, half-and-half, and ice cream. Equally important is replacing those calories with healthy, unsaturated fats (such as those found in vegetable oils, avocados, and fatty fish) rather than refined carbohydrates such as white bread, pasta, and white rice. Unlike healthy fats, these starchy foods aren’t very filling, and they can trigger overeating and weight gain.

The other big problem with refined carbs: They are woefully low in fibre, which helps flush cholesterol out of the body.

The fibre factor
Your body can’t break down fiber, so it passes through your body undigested. It comes in two varieties: insoluble and soluble. Fiber-containing foods usually feature a mix of the two.

Insoluble fibre does not dissolve in water. While it doesn’t directly lower LDL, this form of fiber fills you up, crowding other cholesterol-raising foods out of your diet and helping to promote weight loss.

Soluble fibre dissolves in water, creating a gel. This gel traps some of the cholesterol in your body, so it’s eliminated as waste instead of entering your arteries.

Soluble fibre also binds to bile acids, which carry fats from your small intestine into the large intestine for excretion. This triggers your liver to create more bile acids — a process that requires cholesterol. If the liver doesn’t have enough cholesterol, it draws more from the bloodstream, which in turn lowers your circulating LDL.

Finally, certain soluble fibres (called oligosaccharides) are fermented into short-chain fatty acids in the gut. These fatty acids may also inhibit cholesterol production.

The “best” foods
The following 11 foods are good sources of fibre or unsaturated fat (or both). But they’re not in any particular order and are simply suggestions. Most whole grains, vegetables, and fruits are good sources of fiber. And most nuts and seeds (and the oils made from them) provide monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.

1. Oatmeal. This whole grain is one of the best sources of soluble fiber, along with barley (see “Grain of the month,” at right). Start your day with a bowl of steel-cut or old-fashioned rolled oats, topped with fresh or dried fruit for a little extra fiber.

2. White beans. Also called navy beans, this variety ranks highest in fiber content. Try different types of beans as well, such as black beans, garbanzos, or kidney beans, which you can add to salads, soups, or chili. But avoid prepared baked beans, which are canned in sauce that’s loaded with added sugar.

3. Avocado. The creamy, green flesh of an avocado is not only rich in monounsaturated fat; it also contains both soluble and insoluble fiber. Enjoy this fruit sliced in salad, pureed into dip, or mashed and spread on a slice of whole-grain toast.

4. Eggplant. Although not everyone’s favorite, these deep purple vegetables are one of the richest sources of soluble fiber. One idea: oven-roast or grill whole eggplants until soft and use the flesh in a Middle Eastern dip called baba ghanoush.

5. Carrots. Raw baby carrots are a tasty and convenient snack — and they also give you a decent dose of insoluble fiber.

6. Almonds. Among nuts, almonds are highest in fiber, although other popular varieties such as pistachios and pecans are close behind. Walnuts have the added advantage of being a good source of polyunsaturated, plant-based omega-3 fatty acids.

7. Kiwi fruit. Contrary to popular belief, you don’t need to peel these fuzzy, brown fruits. But to avoid the skin, slice one in half and scoop out the inside with a spoon for an easy, fiber-rich, sweet snack.

8. Berries. Because these fruits are packed with tiny seeds, their fiber content is higher than most other fruits. Raspberries and blackberries provide the most, but strawberries and blueberries are also good sources.

9. Cauliflower. This cruciferous veggie not only provides fiber, but it can also serve as a substitute for white rice. Just shred or whirl in a food processor until it resembles rice, then sauté with a little olive oil until tender.

10. Soy. Eating soybeans and foods made from them, such as soymilk, tofu, and tempeh, was once touted as a powerful way to lower cholesterol. More recent analyses showed the effect is modest, at best. Still, protein-rich, soy-based foods are a far healthier choice than a hamburger or other red meat.

11. Salmon. Likewise, eating cold-water fish such as salmon twice a week can lower LDL by replacing meat and delivering healthy omega-3 fats. Other good fish options include chunk light canned tuna and tinned sardines.

Beer bellies really do lead to brewer’s droop, research reveals.

Nine in ten middle-aged men with waists greater than 40in struggle to get an erection. The rate was a quarter higher than those with a 37in gut, who tended to have only mild difficulties. Those with the biggest bellies had nearly a quarter fewer orgasms and were less sexually satisfied.

Excess belly fat reduces the flow of blood needed to perform and affects testosterone levels, the Turkish researchers suggest in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.

Prof. Mustafa Bolat said: “It is similar to the furring up of arteries that occurs in heart disease.”Commenting on the findings, sex therapist Phillip Hodson said: “The greater British beer belly is not only bad for your heart physically – it is now clearly been linked to not being able to start, continue or complete the act of love.

“Belly fat also converts testosterone to oestrogen thus interfering with proper hormonal balance.

“Many try to disguise their girth by not tucking in shirts. But they’d do better to heed Government advice and not tucking into booze and butties.”

Prostate cancer has been convincingly linked to the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) for the first time.

Experts have found evidence that a significant number of prostate cancer cases are ‘highly likely’ to have been caused by the same virus that causes cervical cancer in women. And they say it may be transmitted to the gland through sex.

The researchers say their findings suggest the HPV vaccine might help lower the risk of prostate cancer.

The vaccine, which has been given to teenage girls since 2008, was last year made available to schoolboys at the age of 12 and 13 for the first time. HPV was already known to cause certain rare cancers in men, including tumours of the mouth, throat and genitals, accounting for around 2,500 cases a year.

But its implication in prostate cancer – which affects more than 57,000 men a year in the United Kingdom (UK) – significantly increases the consequences of contracting the virus.

It also highlights the importance of the vaccination programme.

The research team, from the University of New South Wales in Australia, compiled the results from 26 previous studies to create the biggest evidence base yet linking HPV to prostate cancer.

Writing in the Infectious Agents and Cancer journal, they concluded: “A causal role for HPVs in prostate cancer is highly likely.”

Prostate cancer, which kills 12,000 men in Britain each year, has previously been linked to genetics, environmental pollutants and lifestyle factors. But the researchers said: “Although HPVs are only one of many pathogens identified in prostate cancer, they are the only infectious pathogen which can be prevented by vaccination.”

This suggests HPV as a common factor, they said.

HPV is a common infection spread through skin-to-skin contact, usually during sex. Around eight in 10 people will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives and there are hundreds of different types of the virus.

Around 13 HPV types are known to cause cancer, including cervical cancer, penile cancer and some types of mouth and throat cancer.

But the researchers found HPV types 16 and 18, which cause most cases of cervical cancer, were also linked to prostate cases.

One of the researchers, Prof. James Lawson, said: “Many people assume HPV infections mainly lead to cancers in women. This is not the case.

“The data may indicate that HPV infection may be transmitted during sexual activity and play a causal role in prostate cancer as well as cervical cancer.”

The scientists said more studies needed to look at how HPV infection may lead to prostate cancer.

In the short-term, eating too much sugar may contribute to acne, weight gain, and tiredness. In the long-term, too much sugar increases the risk of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), people in the United States consume too much added sugar. Added sugars are sugars that manufacturers add to food to sweeten them.

In this article, we look at how much added sugar a person should consume, the symptoms and impact of eating too much sugar, and how someone can reduce their sugar intake.

How much sugar is too much? 

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010-2015, on average, Americans consume 17 teaspoons (tsp) of added sugar each day. This adds up to 270 calories.

However, the guidelines advise that people limit added sugars to less than 10% of their daily calorie intake. For a daily intake of 2,000 calories, added sugar should account for fewer than 200 calories.

However, in 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised that people eat half this amount, with no more than 5% of their daily calories coming from added sugar. For a diet of 2,000 calories per day, this would amount to 100 calories, or 6 tsp, at the most.

Symptoms of eating too much sugar

Some people experience the following symptoms after consuming sugar:

  • Low energy levels: 2019 study found that 1 hour after sugar consumption, participants felt tired and less alert than a control group.
  • Low mood: A 2017 prospective study found that higher sugar intake increased rates of depression and mood disorder in males.
  • Bloating: According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, certain types of sugar may cause bloating and gas in people who have digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

Risks of eating too much sugar 

Consuming too much sugar can also contribute to long-term health problems.

Tooth decay

Sugar feeds bacteria that live in the mouth. When bacteria digest the sugar, they create acid as a waste product. This acid can erode tooth enamel, leading to holes or cavities in the teeth.

People who frequently eat sugary foods, particularly in between mealtimes as snacks or in sweetened drinks, are more likely to develop tooth decay, according to Action on Sugar, part of the Wolfson Institute in Preventive Medicine in the United Kingdom.

Acne

2018 study of university students in China showed that those who drank sweetened drinks seven times per week or more were more likely to develop moderate or severe acne.

Additionally, a 2019 study suggests that lowering sugar consumption may decrease insulin-like growth factors, androgens, and sebum, all of which may contribute to acne.

Weight gain and obesity

Sugar can affect the hormones in the body that control a person’s weight. The hormone leptin tells the brain a person has had enough to eat. However, according to a 2008 animal study, a diet high in sugar may cause leptin resistance.

This may mean, that over time, a high sugar diet prevents the brain from knowing when a person has eaten enough. However, researchers have yet to test this in humans.

Diabetes and insulin resistance

2013 article in PLOS ONE, indicated that high sugar levels in the diet might cause type 2 diabetes over time.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) add that other risk factors, such as obesity and insulin resistance, can also lead to type 2 diabetes.

Cardiovascular disease

A large prospective study in 2014 found that people who got 17–21% of their daily calories from added sugar had a 38% higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who consumed 8% added sugars. For those who consumed 21% or more of their energy from added sugars, their risk for CVD doubled.

High blood pressure

In a 2011 study, researchers found a link between sugar-sweetened beverages and high blood pressure, or hypertension. A review in Pharmacological Research states that hypertension is a risk factor for CVD. This may mean that sugar exacerbates both conditions.

Cancer

Excess sugar consumption can cause inflammationoxidative stress, and obesity. These factors influence a person’s risk of developing cancer.

A review of studies in the Annual Review of Nutrition found a 23–200% increased cancer risk with sugary drink consumption. Another study found a 59% increased risk of some cancers in people who consumed sugary drinks and carried weight around their abdomen.

Aging skin

Excess sugar in the diet leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which play a role in diabetes. However, they also affect collagen formation in the skin.

According to Skin Therapy Letter, there is some evidence to suggest that a high number of AGEs may lead to faster visible aging. However, scientists need to study this in humans more thoroughly to understand the impact of sugar in the aging process.

How to eat less sugar

A person can reduce the amount of added sugar they eat by:

  1. checking food labels for sweeteners
  2. reducing foods with added sugar
  3. avoiding processed foods in general

Checking food labels

Added sugar and sweeteners come in many forms. Ingredients to look out for on a food label include:

  • brown sugar
  • fructose
  • glucose
  • sucrose
  • maltose
  • honey
  • corn sweetener
  • corn syrup
  • high fructose corn syrup
  • raw sugar
  • molasses
  • malt syrup
  • evaporated cane juice
  • agave nectar
  • maple syrup
  • invert sugar
  • fruit juice concentrates
  • trehalose
  • turbinado sugar

Some of these ingredients are natural sources of sugar and are not harmful in small amounts. However, when manufacturers add them to food products, a person might easily consume too much sugar without realizing it.

Reducing foods that contain added sugar

Some food products contain large amounts of added sugars. Reducing or removing these foods is an efficient way to reduce the amount of sugar a person eats.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010–2015 state that soda and other soft drinks account for around half a person’s added sugar intake in the U.S. The average can of soda or fruit punch provides 10 tsp of sugar.

Another common source of sugar is breakfast cereal. According to EWG, many popular cereals contain over 60% sugar by weight, with some store brands containing over 80% sugar. This is especially true of cereals marketed towards children.

Swapping these foods for unsweetened alternatives will help a person lower their sugar intake, for example:

  • swapping soda for water, milk, or herbal teas
  • swapping sugary cereals for low sugar cereal, oatmeal, or eggs

Avoiding processed foods

Manufacturers often add sugars to foods to make them more appealing. Often, this means people do not realize how much sugar a food contains.

By avoiding processed foods, a person can get a better sense of what their food contains. Cooking whole foods at home also means someone can control what ingredients they put into their meals.

When to see a doctor

People should see their doctor if they experience the symptoms of high blood sugar. According to the NIDDK, symptoms include:

  • increased thirst and urination
  • increased hunger
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • unexplained weight loss
  • sores that do not heal

These symptoms may indicate a person has diabetes. A doctor can test for diabetes by taking a urine sample.

People should also speak to a doctor if they experience other symptoms after eating sugar, such as bloating.

Summary

Consuming too much added sugar has many adverse impacts on health, including tiredness and weight gain, and more severe conditions, such as heart disease. Added sugars are present in many processed foods and drinks.

People can reduce their sugar intake by knowing what to look for on food labels, avoiding or reducing common sources of sugar, such as soda and cereals, and prioritizing unprocessed whole foods.

If a person is concerned about weight gain, symptoms that may indicate diabetes, or other symptoms they experience after eating sugar, they should speak to a doctor.

A 30-year-old woman in Kolkata has just discovered she is a man after doctors say she is suffering from a rare health condition.

For thirty years, she has lived a normal life with no complications, until recently, when doctors in Kolkata diagnosed her with a very rare condition that can be found in one out of 22,000 people. She was diagnosed with Testicular Cancer.

The 30-year-old woman, who is a resident of Bengal’s Birbhum and has been married for the last nine years, had visited the Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Hospital in Kolkata with severe pain in lower the abdomen a couple of months ago. Dr. Anupam Dutta and Dr. Soumen Das conducted her medical tests and found her “true identity” during treatment. In the words of Dutta:

From her appearance, she is a woman, starting from her voice, developed breasts, normal external genitalia. However, the uterus and ovaries have been absent since birth. She has also never experienced menstruation,” Dr Dutta told PTI. We conducted clinical examinations, after she complained of abdominal pain, and found out she has testicles inside her body. A biopsy was conducted, following which she was diagnosed with testicular cancer, also called seminoma. As her testicles remained undeveloped inside the body, there was no secretion of testosterone. Her female hormones, on the other hand, gave the appearance of a woman.

When the doctor was asked about how the woman reacted to the news, he said:

The person has grown up to be a woman. She is married to a man for almost a decade. Currently, we are counselling the patient and her husband, advising them to continue living life as they have been.

The couple has also been trying to conceive to no avail.

It was also discovered that her 28-year-old sister, who underwent necessary tests following the revelation, was also diagnosed with “Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome”, a condition in which a person is genetically male but has all physical traits of a woman.

Also, The patient’s two maternal aunts have also been diagnosed with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in the past. This has led the Oncologist to believe that the condition is most likely in the gene.

Currently, she is undergoing chemotherapy and her health condition is stable according to a report by NDTV.

late menopause
late menopause

Sexual problems are more common in postmenopausal women, which suggests that menopause can reduce libido.

The reduced sex drive is often caused by decreased estrogen levels, which can dampen arousal and result in sex being more painful.

In this article, we look at how menopause might affect someone’s sex drive, along with what can be done to improve libido.

Menopause and libido

What is menopause?

Menopause refers to when a woman stops having her period permanently, but it can affect more than a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Menopause can cause physical and emotional changes that impact a woman’s life, including her sex life.

Some symptoms and side effects associated with menopause include:

  • anxiety
  • bladder control issues
  • decreased sex drive and desire (libido)
  • depression
  • difficulty sleeping
  • thinning hair
  • weight gain

Each of these effects can impact a woman’s quality of life and relationship with her partner.

What is libido?

Libido refers to sexual interest and sexual enjoyment.

Some women going through menopause report reduced libido, but the causes vary from person to person.

According to one review, the reported rates of sexual problems in postmenopausal women are between 68 and 86.5 percent.

This range is much higher than in all women in general, which is estimated to be between 25 and 63 percent.

Why does menopause affect libido?

Decreased estrogen levels can result in reduced blood flow to the vagina, which can cause the tissues of the vagina and labia to become thinner. If this happens, they become less sensitive to sexual stimulation.

Decreased blood flow also affects vaginal lubrication and overall arousal. As a result, a woman may not enjoy sex as much and may have difficulty achieving orgasm. Sex may be uncomfortable or even painful.

Fluctuating hormone levels during perimenopause and menopause can also affect a woman’s mental health, which in turn, may cause a decrease in her libido.

Stress can also impact a woman’s libido, as she may be juggling a job, parenting, and be caring for aging parents. The changes in hormone levels a woman may experience during menopause may make her irritable or depressed, so dealing with everyday stress may feel more difficult.

According to an article published in the Journal of Women’s Health, women who have more significant side effects associated with menopause are more likely to report lower libido levels.

Examples of these side effects include hot flashes, depression, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and fatigue.

Other factors that make a woman going through menopause more likely to experience a reduced libido include:

  • history of chronic health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or depression
  • history of smoking
  • engaging in low levels of physical activity

A woman should talk to her doctor about how these conditions could affect her sex drive.

Tips for improving libido

There are several steps a woman can take to increase her libido. These include medical treatments, lifestyle changes, and home remedies.

Medical treatments

middle aged couple enjoying a bike ride
Spending time together on shared hobbies, exercising, and planned dates will help increase a couple’s intamacy.

If a woman experiences changes to her vaginal tissue, such as thinning and dryness, she may wish to consider estrogen therapy.

Prescription estrogen can be applied directly to the vagina in the form of creams, pills, or vaginal rings. These usually contain lower doses of estrogen than regular birth control pills.

Some women may wish to take estrogen pills that contain higher levels of hormones. This treatment, known as hormone replacement therapy, might help reduce symptoms, such as hot flashes and mood changes, but may also carry risks.

A woman thinking about hormone replacement therapy should discuss it with her doctor before starting to take any medication.

One study found that women using hormone therapies reported higher levels of sexual desire compared with women who did not.

Less commonly, a doctor may prescribe testosterone therapy. However, not all women respond to this treatment, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve it for treating sexual disorders in women.

A woman may not experience any changes in her sex drive after using estrogen or testosterone therapies.

A woman may also choose to see a therapist who specializes in sexual dysfunction or enhancing sex. Sometimes, couples may want to attend therapy together.

Lifestyle changes

Some women may benefit from using water-soluble lubricants during sex. These can be purchased over-the-counter at most drugstores.

However, women should avoid non-water soluble and silicone-based lubricants, as these can break down condoms used to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Increasing physical activity, such as getting 30 minutes or more of exercise on a routine basis, may help reduce menopause-related symptoms, including a low libido. Eating a healthful diet can also enhance a person’s overall sense of well being.

Changing sexual habits

There are many ways a person can foster a sense of intimacy with their partner, including:

  • Changing sexual routines: Try spending extended periods on foreplay, use vibrators or other sex toys to enhance an intimate experience, or engage in sexual activity or touching without the goal of orgasm.
  • Relieving stress together: There are many stress-relieving techniques a couple can do outside of the bedroom to increase intimacy. Examples include going on planned dates together, taking a walk, or spending time doing hobbies together, such as exercise, crafts, or cooking.
  • Practicing masturbation: Spending time alone and exploring what types of touch and sexual stimulation work well for an individual can help them talk to a partner about their needs and preferences. It can also help a person feel more comfortable with sexual activity without the pressure of a partner.

Natural remedies

Some women use natural supplements to try to increase their libido. It is important to keep in mind that the FDA do not regulate herbs and supplements, so women should be sure to choose a reputable brand.

Some natural remedies used to increase libido in women include:

  • black cohosh
  • red clover
  • soy

A woman should discuss these remedies with a doctor before taking them to ensure they will not interact negatively with other prescriptions and supplements she may be taking. Soy contains estrogen, so it may react with other estrogen therapies.

When to see a doctor

A woman should speak to her doctor whenever perimenopause or menopause is having a significant impact on her day-to-day activities, including sexual activity.

Sometimes, a doctor can recommend changes in health habits as well as discuss whether prescription medications may help relieve the symptoms, including a low libido.

Speaking with a doctor can also rule out any other underlying medical conditions that may cause a reduced libido. These conditions include urinary tract infections, uterine prolapse, endometriosis, or pelvic floor dysfunction.

Outlook

While some women do experience a decreased libido in menopause, others do not.

Some women may even experience a heightened libido after menopause. This can be due to reduced stresses over pregnancy and fewer child-rearing responsibilities.

If a woman’s libido is impacted after menopause, she should talk to her doctor about treatments that could enhance her quality of life.

Tap water may be the cause of one in 20 cases of bladder cancer in Europe each year, a major study suggests. Researchers have linked drinking, showering and bathing in the water to more than 6,500 cases of the disease in 26 countries across the continent.

They estimate 1,356 bladder cancer diagnoses in Britain since 2005 were caused by contaminated water, making up a fifth of all cases in the European Union (EU).

Long-term exposure to a group of chemicals called trihalomethanes (THMs) is thought to be the cause. The chemicals, shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies, are formed as an unintended byproduct when water is disinfected with chlorine at supply plants.

As well as being drunk, steam given off in the shower can allow tap water to seep into people’s pores, and so too can prolonged periods in the bath. Earlier research has found an association between THMs and bladder cancer, but this is the first to estimate the scale of the problem. Some 10,000 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year in the United Kingdom (UK), making it the tenth most common form of the disease.

The latest study estimates nine per cent of them are caused by exposure to water contaminated with THMs.The findings are published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. Scientists from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) set out to analyse the presence of the chemicals in drinking water in all 28 EU states between 2005 and 2018.

They did this by sending questionnaires to bodies responsible for the national water quality. Data was obtained for 26 countries – all except Bulgaria and Romania. The scientists probed levels of THMs in water at the tap, in the distribution network and at water treatment plants.

To make estimates as accurate as possible, the researchers also used other sources including open data online, reports and scientific literature. The findings revealed considerable differences between countries. Average THM levels were above legal levels in nine countries – Britain (24.2ug/l) , Spain, Portugal, Poland, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland and Italy.

The European Union has said the maximum limit is 11.7 micrograms per litre (ug/L). The European Union has said the maximum limit of THMs in water should be 11.7 micrograms per litre (ug/L). Researchers estimated the number of attributable bladder cancer cases using incidence rates and levels of THMs.

Analysis suggested Cyprus had highest percentage, with a quarter of diagnoses linked to the chemicals. Joint second-wort were Ireland and Malta, where one in six bladder cancer patients (17 per cent) are thought to have developed it from exposure to tap water.

Spain (11 per cent) and Greece (10 per cent) were not much better. At the opposite extreme was Denmark, where less than 0.1 per cent of cases were caused by THM water contamination. In Holland it was just 0.1 per cent of cases and Germany 0.2 per cent. THMs could be blamed for 0.4 per cent of cases in Austria and Lithuania. In total, the researchers estimated that 6,561 bladder cancer cases per year are attributable to THM exposure in the European Union.

The study authors say if the 13 countries with the highest averages were to reduce their THM levels to the EU average, 2,868 annual bladder cancer cases could be avoided.

Chloroform is the most infamous type of THM, which the World Health Organisation (WHO) describes as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans’.Co-study author Manolis Kogevinas, a researcher from ISGlobal, said: “Over the past 20 years, major efforts have been made to reduce trihalomethanes levels in several countries of the European Union, including Spain.

“However, the current levels in certain countries could still lead to considerable bladder cancer burden, which could be prevented by optimising water treatment, disinfection and distribution practices and other measures.”

A spokesperson for Britain’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said: “This Government takes the safety of our drinking water extremely seriously, and have a robust monitoring regime in place which tests for a wide range of chemicals, including trihalomethanes, to ensure the public can have absolute faith in the water coming from their taps.

“The latest figures from 2018 found only four samples out of 11,900 exceeded the legal limits, and firm action was taken in each of these four cases.”

A study in September last year discovered 22 carcinogenic substances in water across the United States (U.S.).Despite the fact that most of the water systems they tested were within federal limits on each of these toxins, the scientists estimated that their cumulative effects could be dire over the course of Americans’ lifetimes.

Exposure to arsenic, products of disinfectant chemicals and traces of radioactive chemicals like uranium and radium had the most substantial effects on cancer risks. Over 1.7 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed in the US each year. In the same time period, over 600,000 people die of the disease.

Better prevention strategies, earlier detection and better treatments – like the immunotherapies that are revolutionizing the disease’s future – have driven cancer mortality down dramatically. Yet the disease’s elimination is no where in sight. In part, this is because its roots are many, and difficult to control.

Rather than being triggered by any one thing, genetics, what you eat, where you live, how you eat and, of course, the water you drink all play roles in raising or lowering cancer risks.

Some chemicals, like arsenic are nearly impossible to keep out of water in certain places. For example, in some areas of Illinois, the soil is rich in arsenic, a toxic, carcinogenic heavy metal, linked to liver and bladder cancers.

Arsenic seeps into the ground water, and winds up in our bodies. It also leaks into the water supply from many types of manufacturing plants.US water systems treat drinking water with chlorine – a non-carcinogenic cleaning chemical – in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the metal.

Certain foods and drinks contain compounds that may improve vaginal health and symptoms of vaginal conditions. These include probiotics, prebiotics, and fermented food and beverages.

The vagina uses natural secretions, immune defenses, and “good” bacteria to keep itself healthy. Eating a healthful, balanced diet might also further prevent infections and improve vaginal conditions.

This article discusses what little research there is into the effects of diet on vaginal health, looks at dietary choices for common vaginal conditions, and identifies other ways to improve vaginal health.

People should speak to a doctor before using diet to address any health concerns.

Balancing pH levels

The vagina is a moderately acidic environment with a pH of around 4.5. This acidity helps healthful bacteria to grow and prevents harmful microbes from developing.

Some good bacteria, such as probiotics, may help balance vaginal acidity levels.

Probiotics

Lactobacillus species bacteria is the most dominant type of “good” bacteria found in a healthy vagina.

Research has suggested that Lactobacillus could benefit vaginal health in the following ways:

  • regulating the microflora in the vagina
  • improving the vagina’s acidity levels
  • stopping harmful microbes from attaching to the vaginal tissues
  • working with the body’s immune system

2016 study indicated that using vaginal Lactobacillus supplements after taking antibiotics hindered bacteria growth in people with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and significantly reduced vaginal pH.

2015 review study found “no significant evidence” that probiotics were more beneficial than using a placebo or no treatment. However, the authors noted that due to a lack of evidence, “a benefit cannot be ruled out.”

Probiotic supplements are available, but some nutritionists recommend getting them from fermented foods and drinks, such as:

  • yogurt and kefir
  • kimchi and sauerkraut
  • pickles
  • tempeh
  • kombucha

Prebiotics

Prebiotic compounds may also help stabilize vaginal pH by promoting the growth of healthy bacterial populations. Foods rich in prebiotics include:

  • leeks and onions
  • asparagus and Jerusalem artichoke
  • garlic
  • whole wheat products
  • oats
  • soybeans
  • bananas

It is important to note that prebiotics can worsen bowel conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Preventing UTIs

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur when bacteria enter parts of the urethra, bladder, or kidneys, causing symptoms such as burning or pain during urination and bad smelling or cloudy urine. According to the Urology Care Foundation, about 60% of women will experience a UTI at some point.

Drinking lots of fluids might help prevent a UTI.

Cranberry juice

According to the Urology Care Foundation, drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry tablets may prevent UTIs from developing.

Research supports this idea — in a 2016 study, researchers found that drinking 8 ounces (oz), or 240 milliliters (ml) of a 27% cranberry juice drink each day for 24 weeks lowered the rate of UTIs in adult women who had recently had a UTI.

Cranberries are rich in antibacterial compounds that kill bacteria. These include antioxidants and organic acids, such as:

  • proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins
  • organic and phenolic acids
  • vitamin C
  • flavanols and flavonols

Research into diet and UTIs has mainly focused on cranberries, but many fruits, especially citrus fruits and berries, are also rich in antioxidants and may have similar effects.

Reducing candida infections

Candida infections, or yeast infections, are the second most common cause of vaginitis, or vaginal inflammation.

There is no scientific proof that any foods can reduce candida infections. However, some foods contain ingredients that the fungus uses to grow. These ingredients include refined sugar, preservatives, yeasts, fungi, allergens, and trace antibiotics. People may benefit from avoiding these foods.

Researchers are studying the possible benefits of natural remedies with antifungal, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant properties for candida infection, including tea tree oil, coconut oil, and garlic.

Other ways to improve vaginal health

Regularly eating a healthful, balanced diet that contains fermented products with probiotics and prebiotics can improve vaginal health.

Following some of these lifestyle habits might also help:

  • cleaning the genital region with mild, unscented soap before rinsing well and patting dry daily or as needed during menstruation
  • wiping from front to back
  • using antibiotics appropriately and only when necessary
  • reducing sweat around the vagina
  • exercising regularly
  • maintaining a healthy weight
  • staying hydrating
  • reducing stress
  • wearing loose-fitting cotton underwear

Avoiding or limiting things that can imbalance the body’s systems or irritate the vagina can help, such as:

  • douching
  • holding in urine or rushing urination
  • personal care products with dyes, flavors, or fragrances
  • spermicidal foam or diaphragms
  • tight pants or underwear
  • smoking
  • prolonged exposure to moisture
  • alcohol
  • processed or heavily refined foods
  • foods or drinks with artificial hormones

Summary

Many nutrients contribute to vaginal health. Eating a healthful, nutrient-rich diet can improve all body systems.

Certain nutrients, antioxidants, and probiotics may have particular benefits for vaginal health. However, researchers need to do more studies to work out which nutrients help boost vaginal health and prevent vaginal infections.